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California State University, San Bernardino
CSUSB ScholarWorks

Theses Digitization Project

John M. Pfau Library

2008
A correlation between motivation and test scores on the fitnessgram
Kenya Kristofer Quiros

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Recommended Citation Quiros, Kenya Kristofer, "A correlation between motivation and test scores on the fitnessgram" (2008). Theses Digitization Project. 3409. https://scholarworks.lib.csusb.edu/etd-project/3409
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A CORRELATION BETWEEN MOTIVATION AND TEST SCORES ON THE FITNESSGRAM
A Project. Presented to the
Faculty of California State University,
San Bernardino
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree
Master of Arts in
Education: Kinesiology
by Kenya Kristofer Quiros
June 2008

A CORRELATION BETWEEN MOTIVATION AND TEST SCORES ON THE FITNESSGRAM
A Project Presented to the
Faculty of California State University,
San Bernardino
by Kenya Kristofer Quiros
June 2008 Approved by:
Datae /

ABSTRACT This study involved an in-depth look at motivational factors and interventions associated with performance in physical education. The motivational interventions include a stepped-care approach, the transtheoretical model, stages of readiness for change, goal-setting, tailored and targeted interventions, and progress monitoring. This study examined the relationship between using these motivational models to increase student knowledge and whether using these models would assist students in goalĀ­ setting and fitness planning. Results from the literature show that using motivational techniques and proper goalĀ­ setting techniques will increase student motivation to reach their individualized fitness goals. Student competence in physical activity was an important determinant in progressing to the next stage of change in the transtheoretical model. The ultimate goal of any physical education program should be to become a high performing program.
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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank my wife, Mami Quiros for encouraging me to continue on with my project. I would also like to thank my family and friends for all their help and support. Special thanks goes out to Teresa Sutherland, Angela Halfman, Dr. Aaron Moffett, and Dr. So Hosung for their expertise and leadership. I couldn't have done it without them. I have been fortunate enough to find several professionals in the field of study who decided to help me along the process of writing the project. The professors at California State University San Bernardino that helped me along were Dr. Aaron Moffett and Dr. Hosung So. Therese Sutherland who has two master's: degrees and Angela Halfman who has a master's degree in English have been helpful as well.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT................................................... iii

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .......................................

iv

CHAPTER ONE: A PROJECT

Introduction .....................................

1

Statement of the Problem....................

2

Significance of the Problem ...............

6

Research Questions ...........................

8

Motivational Inter%viewing .................

8

Assumptions and Limitations ...............

11

Definitions of Important Terms .... 12
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Organization of the Remainder of

the Paper...................................

15

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Purposes for Using Fitness Tests ...............

16

Motivational Factors' ........................

18

Stepped-Care Approach and Motivational

Readiness...................................

19

Goal Setting................................. 22

Individualized Activity Plan ...............

24

Fitnessgram Test Battery .................... 24

Fitnessgram Test Items ...................... 26

Feedback.....................................

27

Motivation and Feedback Items .............

29

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CHAPTER THREE: METHODS

31

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS

Transtheoretical Model ..........................

33

Motivation and Performance ...................... 35

Targeted Interventions ...................... 36

Tailored Interventions ...................... 37

Teacher Use of Fitness Testing .................

39

Student Competence in Physical Activities .... 42

Differences in High and Low Performing

Schools.....................................

43

Goal Setting to1 Achieve a Fitness Plan......... 44

CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Summary............................................ 48

Further Research ............................

51

Recommendations ........................

52

Applying Theory to Practice ...............

53

APPENDIX A: A GUIDE TO MOTIVATE STUDENTS IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION ...................... 55

REFERENCES..............................................

57

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CHAPTER ONE A PROJECT
Introduction The purpose of this project was to assist physical education teachers to acquire knowledge and expertise on ways of informing and motivating students at the middle and high school level about the benefits of motivation and exercise on personal health. The information in the project determined whether or not there was a correlation between motivational interventions, improved fitness, and performance. It is imperative for educators to act quickly and efficiently in the delivery of information and physical activities for students. Physical Education across the country needs to take a giant leap forward when it comes to educating and motivating students to perform well on fitness tests. This will enable students to become more aware of the benefits of personal health and exercise. There is a health crisis among the youth in the United States today that is becoming an epidemic. Dr. Susan Clark (Director of Endocrinology and Diabetes at Children's Hospital of Orange County) stated, "We are heading for the worst health-care crisis
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this country has ever seen. Teenagers and young adults are going to be dying from heart disease." It will be to the
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detriment of our youth if educators fail to act aggressively toward achieving a higher standard of physical fitness for middle and high school students (Wells, 2004).
Topics that are addressed include information about how physical educators, need to investigate students' current status physically and mentally, physical educators need to be able to determine which activities best interest and motivate students to become more active and involved in everyday activities, physical educators need to find out what it is that students expect to achieve in physical education classes, physical educators need to be able to assess the ongoing physical and mental status of students to determine their individual progress which will in turn, further motivate them to remain active, and that there is a need for students to increase the amount of time spent being physically active. Statement of the Problem
Students today are not educated enough in their own motivational stages of readiness and how to advance to the next stage. Understanding the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change would enhance student learning and
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motivation by learning which stage a student is in and what effort is needed to advance to the next stage. According to Sullivan (1998), there are five stages of behavior change.
The first stage called the precontemplation stage refers to individuals who do not believe they have a problem and have often constructed defenses that aid in denial of the problem. The second stage is the contemplation stage where individuals acknowledge having a problem and begin to deliberately increase awareness and knowledge related to the problem. The third stage is the
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preparation stage where before initiating behavior change, individuals should re-evaluate themselves with respect to the problem, develop commitment to change, and construct a detailed plan for change. The fourth stage is the action stage where behavior change is initiated. After at least 6 months in the action stage, the person may move into the fifth stage. The final stage is the maintenance stage where although change is maintained more easily now, some vigilance is- still required to avoid slips or setbacks. If and when the change becomes so automatic that there is no possibility of reverting to a former behavior, the goal "Termination" is reached (Sullivan, 1998).
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StudentsStageProjectCorrelationChange