Better Practice in Music Education - Arts Education in

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BETTER PRACTICE IN ARTS EDUCATION
VOLUME II

BETTER
p r a c t i c e i n MUSIC
EDUCATION

BUILDING EFFECTIVE TEACHING THROUGH EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH

Marie McCarthy, PhD University of Maryland
Regina Carlow, MM Montgomery County Public Schools
Kathleen Gabriele, MEd Anne Arundel County Public Schools
Margo Hall, MS Frederick County Public Schools
Judy Moore, MM Prince George’s County Public Schools
Robert Woody, PhD University of Maryland
James L. Tucker, Jr. Series Editor

BETTER PRACTICE IN MUSIC EDUCATION
Better Practice in Arts Education, Volume II Building Effective Teaching Through Educational Research
James L. Tucker, Jr. Series Editor
Copyright © 2003 by the Maryland State Department of Education. All rights reserved. Published in 2007.
Maryland State Department of Education 200 West Baltimore Street Baltimore, MD 21201-2595 Telephone: (410) 767-0352 or (410) 767-0100 Fax: (410) 333-1146 TTY/TDD: 410-333-6442 Web site: http://www.marylandpublicschools.org

BETTER PRACTICE IN ARTS EDUCATION
VOLUME II

BETTER
p r a c t i c e i n MUSIC
EDUCATION

MARYLAND STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION

Marie McCarthy, PhD University of Maryland

Regina Carlow, MM Montgomery County Public Schools Kathleen Gabriele, MEd Anne Arundel County Public Schools Margo Hall, MS Frederick County Public Schools Judy Moore, MM Prince George’s County Public Schools Robert Woody, PhD University of Maryland
James L. Tucker, Jr. Series Editor
BUILDING EFFECTIVE TEACHING THROUGH EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH

Maryland State Board of Education
Edward L. Root, President Dunbar Brooks, Vice President Nancy S. Grasmick, Secretary/Treasurer
Lelia T. Allen J. Henry Butta Beverly A. Cooper Calvin D. Disney Charlene M. Dukes Richard L. Goodall Karabelle Pizzigati Maria C. Torres-Queral David F. Tufaro Brian W. Frazee, Student Member
Maryland State Department of Education Nancy S. Grasmick, State Superintendent of Schools Ronald A. Peiffer, Deputy State Superintendent Office of Academic Policy A. Skipp Sanders, Deputy State Superintendent Office of Administration JoAnne L. Carter, Deputy State Superintendent Office of Instruction and Academic Acceleration Colleen Seremet, Assistant State Superintendent Division of Instruction Dixie Stack, Director of Curriculum Division of Instruction James L. Tucker, Jr., Coordinator of Fine Arts Division of Instruction
State of Maryland Martin O’Malley, Governor
The Maryland State Department of Education does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, sex, age, national origin, religion, disability, or sexual orientation in matters affecting employment or in providing access to programs. For inquiries related to departmental policies, contact the Equity Assurance and Compliance Office.

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FOREWORD
The State of Maryland is gaining increased recognition nationally for its education reform initiatives and its commitment to high standards of accountability in education. It further recognizes the need for high quality arts education as an essential part of our children’s education. In 1989, after a decade of requiring experiences in dance, music, theatre, and the visual arts for all students in grades K-8, Maryland became one of the first states to require that students earn a credit in the fine arts to receive the Maryland High School Diploma. Maryland’s reform initiatives have traditionally focused on envisioning what students should know and be able to do, providing resources and enhancing instructional practice, and documenting student learning. This particular project focuses on informing instructional practice.
In 1995, the Maryland State Board of Education adopted a goal that 100 percent of Maryland’s students will participate in fine arts programs that enable them to meet the content and achievement standards established by State standards for the arts. By 1997, K-12 standards for dance, music, theatre, and visual arts education, developed by a 38 member task force, were approved by the State Board. The following year Project BETTER was initiated to develop a resource tool that would inform instructional practice in each of the art forms.
The concept for Project BETTER – Building Effective Teaching Through Educational Research – was created by the Division of Instruction of the Maryland State Department of Education (MSDE) during the late 1980s as part of its mission to promote effective instruction. The development of the four volume publication for the current project was guided by the same three major objectives: 1) to identify current research on effective instruction, 2) to synthesize this research in the form of non-theoretical summaries, and 3) to deliver this information directly to practitioners.
The information in this publication is designed as a resource to assist teachers in expanding and refining their repertoire of teaching strategies and to guide instructional planning and decision-making that supports student achievement of State standards in the arts. It is not intended to prescribe a particular style of teaching or one “best” method. This resource provides a guide to teachers as they consider their curriculum objectives, the nature and needs of their students, their personal style of teaching, and their available instructional resources. The application of this knowledge will result in more effective teaching and more powerful learning.

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INTRODUCTION

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Introduction

The first edition of BETTER Practice in Music Education was written by Anita Haushild-Cooper for the Maryland State Department of Education and published in 1991. The present edition was commissioned in 1998 with the goal of supporting the Maryland Essential Learner Outcomes in Music. A team of music educators at the University of Maryland, College Park—Regina Carlow, Kathleen Gabriele, Margo Hall, Judy Moore, and Robert Woody—prepared the text, and Marie McCarthy coordinated their efforts. This considerably restructured edition includes research studies that address the Essential Learner Outcomes. In cases of repeated topics, the authors revised and updated each entry to reflect research findings published since the first edition was compiled. For example, the topic of problem solving now falls in the context of developing critical thinking skills; the expanded definition of minority students includes research on ethnicity and ESOL students; and visual aids and manipulative materials are presented as multisensory elements.
In the intervening period between the publication of the first edition and the present one, we have witnessed significant developments in music education research. Of central importance is the publication of the Handbook of Research on Music Teaching and Learning (1992), followed by the New Handbook of Research on Music Teaching and Learning (2002), both of which synthesize research findings pertaining to a comprehensive range of music education topics. New research journals in music education provide additional forums for publishing findings; for example, the Philosophy of Music Education Review, the Quarterly Journal of Music Teaching and Learning, and Research Studies in Music Education. The MENC: National Association for Music Education publication Update fulfills a unique function in applying research findings to classroom practice.
In general, research methodology expanded to embrace various forms of qualitative research, exploring best practices in music education in innovative ways and also encouraging teachers to carry out practitioner research in their own classrooms. Even in light of all the positive developments in music education research in the past decade, the gap between research and practice presents an ongoing challenge. Sources such as

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INTRODUCTION

BETTER Practice in Music Education seek to bridge that gap by identifying the implications of research findings for classroom instruction.
The vast research literature base we had to draw upon required us to make choices and narrow the literature search. For example, we chose literature published after 1990. The 25 topics selected for the first edition were consolidated into two broad categories: learners and the learning environment, and teacher effectiveness. The first of these covers research findings that offer insight into aspects of instruction such as classroom management, use of media, learning styles, and gender issues. The second category focuses on teacher attitude, knowledge, and competence, in addition to a broad range of instructional strategies, from modeling to critical thinking, motivational feedback to verbal instruction.
Our third area is intended to support the learner outcomes described in the Maryland Essential Learner Outcomes in Music. The Maryland Fine Arts Standards, which are aligned with the National Standards for Arts Education and were created with the participation of over 2,000 Maryland teachers, are a set of documents entitled “Maryland Essential Learner Outcomes for the Fine Arts” (dance, music, theatre, and visual arts) for elementary, middle, and high school. They describe what children should know and be able to do in the arts by fifth grade, eighth grade, and 12th grade. We have chosen to highlight research on best practice in the four outcome areas in the following ways: We synthesized research in the area of singing and playing instruments to support Outcome 1 involving students perceiving, performing, and responding to music. Outcome 2 focuses on historical, cultural, and social contexts, which we address in terms of best practice in presenting a broad variety of repertoire and performance practices of diverse music. Outcome 3 involves creative expression and production. We stress offering an environment that fosters creativity and improvisation, as well as providing for structured compositional activities. We chose to address Outcome 4, concerning aesthetic criticism, through several current philosophies of music education.

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We devised the following format for each topic: A central research finding on the topic appears as a BETTER PRACTICE at the outset. A THEORY section follows, which provides a context for research on the topic and summarizes findings from studies examined. A quotation considered useful to the practitioner is included for each topic. The final component consists of references and, for selected topics, resources. The authors drew on studies in music education, education, psychology, and other disciplines related to the topics under study. For each reference we provide a brief annotation. The majority of studies cited here are quantitative in style, since that has been the predominant methodology in music education research until recently.
As mentioned above, given the vast research base in music education, and the state of constantly evolving research, this document must be considered “in progress.” During the writing of the document, the New Handbook of Research on Music Teaching and Learning was in preparation and is now published and available to music educators. We encourage our colleagues to read these entries in the context of their own teaching experience and to allow BETTER PRACTICE findings to enrich their perspectives on music teaching and learning, and to stimulate new questions about the music teaching and learning process.
Marie McCarthy and Regina Carlow University of Maryland, College Park October 2003

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents
Foreword iii Introduction v Learners and the Learning Environment
I. Learning Environment 1 Physical Environment 2 Models for Organizing Instruction 4 Classroom Management 7 Multisensory Media and Materials 8 Technology 10
II. Learner Characteristics 13 Learning Styles 14 Gender Issues 15 Ethnicity 16 Students with Limited English Proficiency 18 At-Risk Students 21 Students with Disabilities 22 Gifted and Talented Students 24
Teacher Effectiveness I. Teacher Attitude, Knowledge, and Competence 27 Teacher Attitude 29 The Reflective Teacher 30 Action Research 32 Professional Development 35 Assessment 36

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PracticeMusic EducationMarylandEducationMusic