Cognitive Development and Learning in Young Children

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Cognitive Development and Learning in Young Children

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Cognitive Development and Learning in Young Children Gloria Maccow, Ph.D., Assessment Training Consultant

Cognitive Development and Learning in Young Children
Gloria Maccow, Ph.D. Assessment Training Consultant
Test Items
Some actual test items may be shown during the presentation. Test items are not included in the handout.

Cognitive Development

Copyright © 2016. Pearson, Inc., and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

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Cognitive Development and Learning in Young Children Gloria Maccow, Ph.D., Assessment Training Consultant

Today’s One-Hour Agenda

Cognitive factors that account for

I.

differences in learning

II.

The Process of Learning

III. What Do Data Tell Us About Learning?

Cognitive Development

In Early Childhood Programs, . . .
Some children learn the skills we teach in the regular classroom.
Some children require additional specialized instruction.

Cognitive Development

Copyright © 2016. Pearson, Inc., and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

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Cognitive Development and Learning in Young Children Gloria Maccow, Ph.D., Assessment Training Consultant
In Early Childhood Programs, . . .
Some children respond when you call on them.
Some children respond while you are providing the instructions.
Cognitive Development

Factors Affecting Learner’s Skills

Curriculum and Instructional Materials

Teacher’s Instruction (Pedagogy)

Learner’s Skills

Individual Differences in the Processes in Learner’s
Brain
(Berninger, 2007)

Cognitive Development

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Cognitive Development and Learning in Young Children Gloria Maccow, Ph.D., Assessment Training Consultant
Cognitive Factors and Learning

Stages of Cognitive Development (Piaget)
Sensori-motor (Birth to 2 years) Pre-operational (2 to 7 years) Concrete operational (7 to 11 years)
Formal operational (11 to 15 years)
(Santrock & Yussen, 1992)
Cognitive Development

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Cognitive Development and Learning in Young Children Gloria Maccow, Ph.D., Assessment Training Consultant
Information Processing

Information from the
environment

Sensory and Perceptual Processes

Memory

Thinking

Language

(Santrock & Yussen, 1992)

Cognitive Development

Information Processing

• memory • problem-
solving • reasoning

Brain Mind Cognition
Output

Input

(Santrock & Yussen, 1992)

Cognitive Development

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Cognitive Development and Learning in Young Children Gloria Maccow, Ph.D., Assessment Training Consultant
Process of Learning

Learning: A complex process!
Memory

Language

Visual-Spatial
Learning

Attention/ Executive Functions

Sensory Input Motor Actions
Cognitive Development

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Cognitive Development and Learning in Young Children Gloria Maccow, Ph.D., Assessment Training Consultant
Sensory-Motor Functions and Learning: Input and Output

Cognitive Development

Attention and Learning

Does the child . . .

• selectively attend to certain stimuli while ignoring competing, irrelevant stimuli?
• sustain attentional focus for a prolonged period?

• shift attentional resources from one activity to another?
• Respond to more than one task simultaneously – divided attention?

Cognitive Development

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Cognitive Development and Learning in Young Children Gloria Maccow, Ph.D., Assessment Training Consultant
Salient Features



Let’s count!
Cognitive Development

Visual-Spatial Processes and Learning
• Much of what is presented in school has either a visual-spatial or language basis.
• Visual-perceptual skills play a major role in the development of a child’s handwriting skills, and fluency in math and reading.
• For example, a student may be able to name individual letters in a word (visual analysis, b-ed), but she may be unable to integrate the letters to say the word (visual synthesis, bed).
Cognitive Development

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Cognitive Development and Learning in Young Children Gloria Maccow, Ph.D., Assessment Training Consultant

Visual-Spatial . . .

1

3

+

6

=

bread beard

Cognitive Development

Language and Learning

Receptive
Children must understand words and sentences to perceive and process information.

Expressive
They must use words to show they can retrieve information from memory.

Cognitive Development

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Cognitive Development and Learning in Young Children Gloria Maccow, Ph.D., Assessment Training Consultant

Language and Learning

Early development of reading depends critically on whether the
– receptive phonological component of the aural system and the
– expressive phonological component of the oral system
are developing in an age-appropriate manner (Berninger, 2007).

Language

Literacy

Cognitive Development

Developmental Sequence of Phonological Awareness Skills
Individual phonemes within syllables: Phonemes within consonant clusters (Recognizing sounds of letters ‘s’ and ‘t’ in word stem)
Individual phonemes within syllables: Phonemes within rimes
(Recognizing sounds of letters ‘e’ and ‘m’ in word stem)
Onsets and rimes within syllables (Recognizing sound of initial ‘s’ [onset] and sound of vowel and remaining consonant ‘ev’ [rime] in first syllable of word seven)
Syllables within words (Recognizing each syllable of two-syllable word seven)
Word-length phonological units (Recognizing two parts of compound word cowboy)
Cognitive Development

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