Corn and oats - a compilation of information on comparison

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Corn and oats - a compilation of information on comparison

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Mississippi State University
Scholars Junction

Bulletins

Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station (MAFES)

6-1-1942
Corn and oats - a compilation of information on comparison, utilization, and production of grain feeds for Mississippi farms
H. O. West

Follow this and additional works at: https://scholarsjunction.msstate.edu/mafes-bulletins
Recommended Citation West, H. O., "Corn and oats - a compilation of information on comparison, utilization, and production of grain feeds for Mississippi farms" (1942). Bulletins. 283. https://scholarsjunction.msstate.edu/mafes-bulletins/283
This Article is brought to you for free and open access by the Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station (MAFES) at Scholars Junction. It has been accepted for inclusion in Bulletins by an authorized administrator of Scholars Junction. For more information, please contact [email protected]

BULLETIN 368

JUNE 1942

Corn and Oats
A Compilation of Information on
Comparison, Utilization, and Production of Grain Feeds for Mississippi Farms

Compiled by H. O. WEST, Coordinator Research Information
Jointly Representing Mississippi State V^ocational Board and : : Mississippi Agricultural Experiment Station

CONTENTS

PART I

Page

Comparison of corn and oats Comparison of corn and oat production on Labor requirements for corn and oats Corn and oats as a feed for livestock Machinery for harvesting corn and oats

Mississippi
.

farms
.......

6-26 6-11 11-13 13-22 22-26

PART II

Corn production

-

Corn varieties

Methods of seedbed preparation

.

Dates of planting

.

............

Spacing -

,

.

Fertilizing corn

Fertilizer analysis test with corn

Nitrogen sources

Rates of applying nitrogen

.

Time of applying nitrogen

.

Winter legumes and barnyard manure as a fertilizer for corn Summer legumes cut and turned as a fertilizer for corn
Summer legumes interplanted in corn as a corn fertilizer

Corn Cultivation

.

27-97 27-36 36-39 39-45 45-51 51-87 53-61 61-64 6565-68 68-77 77-82 82-87 88-97

PART III

Oat production

Oat varieties

.

Land preparation for oats

Dates of seeding

Rates of seeding

Fertilizing oats

Source of nitrogen

Dates of applying nitrogen

Rates of applying nitrogen....

Miscellaneous treatments

Harvesting oats

Oat smut control

.".

98-127 98-101 101-103 103-106 106-108 108-119 110-114 114-115 115-117 117-119 119-123 123-127

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Acknowledgements are made to Mr. V. G. Martin, Head of the Agricultural Education Department, State College; Mr. N. E. Wilson, Associate Professor ol Agricultural Education, State College, for reading and criticis-
ing the manuscript ol this bulletin; to Mr. J. F. O'Keily, Agronomist, Mississippi Agricultural Experiment Station, State College for reading and criticis-
ing the Agronomy sections of this bulletin; to Mr. R, H. Means, Acting Head of Animal Husbandry Department, State College, for reading and criticising
the Livestock section of this bulletin; to Dr. J. A. Pinckard, Plant Pathologist, Mississippi Agricultural Experiment Station, State College, for reading and
criticising the Oat Smut Control section of this bulletin; and to Mr. Russell Woodburn, Acting Head of Agricultural Engineering Department, Mississippi Agricultural Experiment Station, State College, for reading and criticising the Farm Machinery section of this bulletin.

Corn and Oats
Compiled by H. O. WEST*

Com and oats are the main grain food and feed crops produced in Mis-
sissippi. At present corn is by far the more important, but during the last few years there has been a definite increase in the acreage of oats produced for grain. The average acreage planted to corn in Mississippi during the last 10 years has been approximately 2/2 million acres annually. The acreage of oats in Mississippi for 1941 was approximately 280,000 acres. In addition to corn and oats, there has been a small acreage planted to miscellaneous grains. The combined acreage of all grains does not produce enough grain
to satisfy the needs of the state, so that Mississippi still imports grain feeds each year. This is due in large part to the low average acre-yield of corn.

There has been a definite change in methods of farming in Mississippi during the past few years. This change has been brought about in part by the increased use of power equipment. The labor situation has done a
great deal toward causing this shift. In the present emergency there seems
to be a need for a change in the farming set-up on many farms due to the increasing labor shortage. It may become necessary to switch from the pro-
duction of some crops in order to conserve — labor to engage more largely in
the production of crops that can be handled mainly vvith power equipment.

It is felt that there is a possibility of changing the practices followed in
producing grain in Mississippi. An attempt is made in Part I of this publica-
tion to present information that should be helpful in planning a grain pro-
duction program. The information is based on experiment station results as well as on a study of corn and oat production practices used by Mississippi farmers and other results.

In addition to this information. Part II deals with duction practices for corn, and in Part III information production.

information on prois presented on oat

It is hoped that the information presented in Part I of this publication will be useful in helping farmers of Mississippi plan a grain production program that will result in additional grain produced on individual farms and in the state as a whole. After the grain production program has been planned it is suggested that a study of Parts II and III of this publication should prove helpful in successfully carrying out a grain production program on Mis-
sissippi farms.

^Jointly repiesentinjj
Experiment Station.

Mississipjii

State

X'ocational

Board

and

Mississippi

Agricultural

Part I
Comparison of Corn and Oats
Corn and oats are the most important grain crops produced in Mississippi, both of which are used largely in feeding livestock In planning a grain production program a number of factors should be considered. Probably the most important of these factors are: (1) a comparison of the yield per acre of corn and oats in bushels, in pounds, and in pounds of total digestible nutrients, commonly referred to as T.D.N. ; (2) a comparison of the labor requirements in producing corn and oats; (3) a comparison of the feeding value of corn and oats; and (4) consideration of the machinery requirements in producing corn and oats.
A Comparison of Corn and Oat Production on Mississippi Farms
To make a comparison of the yields of corn and oats, the need for in-
formation other than available experimental and other types of information, was keenly felt. Therefore, it was thought advisable to secure information by a survey method on the production of corn and oats, securing information directly from farmers in Mississippi. In making this study on corn and oat production, the state was arbitrarily divided into five areas: (1) Delta, (2) Brown Loam, (3) North Mississippi, (4) South Mississippi, and (5) Prairie.
The map in figure 1 shows the divisions and areas included in each of the sections. These divisions were made to accord with differences in types of
farming, so that more specific information might be applicable to each area. This information was secured by making farm surveys. Communities
were selected in different locations in each area and the assistance of vocational agriculture teachers was secured in making the farm surveys. The farm surveys include information on production practices used by farmers on both corn and oats. Three groupings, made for the purpose of comparing yields of corn and oats on these farms, were set up on the basis of corn
yields: group 1, farms having low corn yields; group 2, farms having medium
corn yields; and group 3, farms having high corn yields. After the groupings were completed, the average corn yield was computed for each group; then the average yield of oats was computed on the farms that were placed in the low, medium, and high groups, which gives a comparison of the yield of corn and oats on the same farm for each of the groups.
In each area the following information is shown: (1) number of farms, (2) acreage of corn and oats, (3) amount of fertilizer used per acre, (4) actual pounds of plant food applied per acre, and (5) yield per acre in bushels, pounds, pounds T.D.N., and pounds of protein. The results of this grouping by areas are shown in tables 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9. Table 11 shows an av-
erage of the five areas for the State of Mississippi.
The chief aim sought in making the farm surveys on corn and oat production was to get yield figures on each of these crops that could be used by fa rmers in determining which one or what combination of the two to produce as a source of grain for food and feed on their farms. In addition to the yield figures information on the more significant practices which might cause variation in yields was obtained. These practices were such as seedbed preparation, kinds and amount of fertilizer used for corn and oats,

CORN AND OATS

7

and rates of seeding oats. While this information on these practices is presented primarily in the nature of supplementary information to the comparison of yields for corn and oats, it may throw some light on determining the particular method to follow with respect to some of the practices. It is recognized that the «;cope of the surveys was too small to consider the results from different methods of carrying out a particuliT- practice as a valid guide to a farmer in making a decision as to just whai method to use with re-
spect to such a practice. On some of these practice:; fotrolled experiments
have been conducted in Mississippi and in other states, and the need for referring to the results of these experiments for more dependable guidance in determining the particular methods to use is emphasized at this point. Tabulation of the data showing comparative yields of corn and oats has been set up and is presented in separate tables for each area surveyed; also the data or practices, supplementary to the yield data, are presented separately for each area surveyed and following immediately after the table on comparative yields of corn and oats for each area in tables 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10.
Information was also secured on the crop following oats. A high per-
centage of the operators of farms surveyed was using hay crops, and yields were reported as ranging from one-half ton to two tons per acre. There is also a possibility that a considerable amount of the corn acreage was inter-
planted with summer legumes, but this information was not secured in making the farm surveys. If hay were used after oars, and if corn were interplanted with summer legumes and the legumes cut from the corn for feed,
there is a possibility of increased production of total digestible nutrients per
acre. Due to the lack of information on the amount of corn interplanted,
it was thought advisable not to attempt to determine the T.D.N, produced from hay and oats. It is suggested that the advisability of corn interplanted with summer legumes and oats followed by a hay crop should be considered in determining the total T.D.N, produced from land planted to corn and oats.
Delta Area
The Delta area is the largest oat producing area of Mississippi. There were 60 farm surveys made in 12 widely distributed communities in the Delta area. These farms ranged in size from approximately 40 acres in cul-
tivation to thousands of acres. In this area 5-year average results were ob-
tained in most cases. The tabulation for this area give results covering a period of at least 4 years. The results are shown in table 1.

Table — 1. A comparison of corn and oat yields on farms grouped according to corn yields
into low, medium, and high yielding groups in the Delta area.

Fcrtil izer used

Y\c\d per acre

No. farms

Corn

22

Oats

22

Corn

25

Oats

25

Corn

13

Oats

13

Acreage
2559.0 2865.5
6921.0 4385.0
2367.0 1447.8

Total pounds
1

1

per acre

Lbs. nitrogen

per acre

Bushels

Low corn yield group

59.5

9.9

12.5

183.8

31.4

46.3

Medium corn yield group

75.6

14.1

22.3

174.3

31.5

56.5

High corn yield group

136.2

27.1

31.5

142.2

27.0

58.1

1 Lbs.
Pounds T.D.N.

700 1482
1248 1808
1764 1859

571 1043
1019 1273
1441 1309

Lbs. protein
49.7 143.8
88.6 175.4
125.2 180.3

"

8

MISS. AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 368

The average amount
determined; the fertiUzer ammonia, and cyanamid.

of fertilizer used consisted largely

per acre on corn and oats was
of nitrate of soda, sulphate of

Table — 2. Practices used in corn and oat production by farms in the Delta area.
Rate of planting oats

Rate of planting bushels

Number
farms

Acreage

Lbs. fertilizer per acre

Yield per acre bushels

VA

3

185.0

114.0

44.0

2

6

298.0

175.6

50.0

IVi

25

4057.8

175.5

50.1

3

19

3387.5

168.2

50.9

3/2

6

900.0

158.8

69.2

4

1

120.0

200.0

58.0

Methods of land preparation for corn and oats

Bed and disk

11

Bed and plant in water

furrow

9

Flat break, disk and harrow.— 12

Double disk, bed with

middle burster anc harrow 17

Corn 1305.0
1310.0 3077.0
2629."^

91.2
76.8 139.0
139.0

19.2
20.2 26.3
23.8

Double disk and harrow

43

Flat break and disk

14

Miscellaneous methods

3

Oats 5868.0 2560.3
520.0

170.0 164.0 146.1

50.0 56.4 49.3

Table 3—A comparison of corn and oat yields on farms grouped according to com yields
into low, medium, and high yielding groups in the Brown Loam area.

No. farms

Corn Oats

21 . 21

Corn

11

Oats- ... 11

Corn .

11

Oats... ..

11

Acreage
: 11 .
2794.0 878.0
1474.0 595.0
446.0 232.0

Fertilizer used I

Total lbs. Pound N-P-KI

per acre

per acre ' Bushels

Low corn yield group

88.0

13.6-1. 1-.2

13.1

118.0

18.8-0-0

38.6

Medium corn yield group

104.0

16.1-1.3-.7

19.5

108.0

17.2-0-0

42.0

High corn yield group

153.0

10.5-1.0-4.0

26.6

90.0

15.4-0-0

48.0

Yield per acre
1 Lbs.
j '
Pounds T.D.N 1

733.0 123.5

598.0 870.0

1092.0 1344.0

892.0 946.0

1489.0 1536.0

1216.5 1081.0

Lbs. protein
52.0 119.7
77.5 130.0
105.7 149.0'

tTable — 4. Practices used in corn and oat production by farms in the Brown Loam area.
Rates of planting oats

Rate of planting bushel

Number
farms

Acreage

Lbs. fertilizer per acre

2

2

882.25

55.6

2/2

13

584.00

136.9

3

4

90.00

56.3

3/2

2

46.^0

122.5

Methods of land preparation for corn and oats

Disk, bed with burster

19

Middlcburst and rebed

12

Flat break and harrow.. .. . . 12

Corn 2080.00 1283.25 1361.00

92.9 103.2 88.0

Flat break and disk

15

Double cut with disc harrow.. 28

Oats 365.25 1341.00

152.9 103.3

Yield per acre bushels 35.4 40.2 30.4 26.0
18.1 17.5 15.2
58.8 35.6

CORN AND OATS

9

Brown Loam Area
There has been a considerable increase in the acreage of ons planted
in the Brown Loam area during the last three or four years. In making the
farm surveys in this area information was secured on a 5-year average basis,
or for as many years as oats had been produced provided oats had not been grown for 5 years. There were 43 farm surveys made in 10 communities in the Brown Loam area. The results of the tabulations for the Brown Loam area are shown in table 3. The fertilizer used under corn in the Brown Loam area consisted of a mixture of nitrate of soda, sulphate of ammonia, superphosphate,
and complete fertilizer. On oats the fertilizer used was nitrate of soda.

North Mississippi Area
In making the corn and oat production study in the North Mississippi area, 81 farms were surveyed in 18 communities. Farms in this area r.anged from very small to relatively large. In this area 5-year average results were obtained where possible. Tabulations for this area shown in table 5 give results covering from a 2- to 5-year period.
The average amount of fertilizer used per acre was computed for corn and oats. The fertilizer used per acre on corn in the North Mississippi area
consisted of nitrate of soda, superphosphate, and complete fertilizer. All

Table — 5. A comparison of corn and oat yields on farms grouped according to corn yields
into low, medium, and high yielding groups in the North Mississippi area.

No. farms

Corn

24

Oats

24

Corn

38

Oats

38

Corn

19

Oats

19

Acreage
785.95 295.50
1421.00 657.00 535.50 288.50

Fertilizer used

Total lbs. Pounds N-P-K

pel acre

per acre

Bushels

Low corn yield group

124.0

14.^-6 3-1.0

14.3

105.0

16.8-0-0

32.9

Medium corn yield group

134.0

8.0-0.8-4.4 20.3

90.0

14.4-0-0

40.3

High corn yield group

209.0

17.8-9.8-4.4 33.6

115.0

18.4-0-0

48.1

Yield per acre

Pounds

Lbs. T.D.N.

Lbs. protein

800 1043
1136 1290
1881 1510

654 735
928 908
1536 1063

57.8 101.2
80.6 125.1
122.5 146.5

Table — 6. Practices used in corn and oat production by farmers in the North Mississippi area.
Rates of seeding oats

Rate of planting bushels

Number
farms

Acreage

Lbs. fertilizer per acre

2 IVz 3 3/2 4

44

506.3

146.0

22

509.0

130.0

11

167.4

180.0

1

19.0

135.0

1

12.0

100.0

Methods of land preparation for corn and oats

Flat break

34

Bed two times

27

Flat break and bed

14

Disk and bed

5

Corn 1375.70 564.75 563.00 219.00

153.0 152.6 173.7
46.5

Double disk

30

Flat break and disk

21

Flat break

29

Oats 459.40 422.25 344.35

251.0 110.0
72^

Yield per acre bushels 38.7 43.0 45.0 56.5 33.0
22.1 20.5 25.4 14.4
41.9 40.1
38^
CornOatsMississippiFertilizerFarms