Dairy Products Technology (Dairy Technology) - CBSE

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Dairy Products Technology (Dairy Technology) - CBSE

Transcript Of Dairy Products Technology (Dairy Technology) - CBSE

Dairy Products Technology (Dairy Technology)
Student Handbook for
Class XII

Central Board of Secondary Education, Delhi
Shiksha Kendra, 2 Community Centre, Preet Vihar, Delhi-110092 India

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Fluid Milk Processing Student’s Handbook for Class XI Price : Rs. 285.00 First Edition 2013 CBSE, India Copies : 1,000
“This Book or part thereof may not be reproduced by any person or agency in any manner.”

Published By

: The Secretary, Central Board of Secondary Education, Shiksha Kendra, 2, Community Centre, Preet Vihar, Delhi-110092

Design, Layout : Dee Kay Printers, 5/37 Kirti Nagar, New Delhi-110015 Phone : 25414260

Printed by

: Shree Balaji Printers, B-266, IInd Floor, Vivek Vihar, Phase-I, Delhi-110095

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Dairy Products Technology

Preface
At present India is the world leader in milk production with an annual production of 127 million tonnes. About 50 percent of the milk is handled by the organized sector. Domestic market for value added products like butter, ice cream, cheese, dairy whiteners and spreads is growing at 8-10 percent per year. Despite the large infrastructure available for processing of milk, only 27% of the total milk produced is at present converted into value added products. Consumption of large quantities of liquid milk at the site of production and poor post-harvest handling and processing are among the reasons for low value addition of milk. With the launch of the National Dairy Plan, milk production in India is likely to increase over 4 to 5 percent annually in the next two decades. The increasing demands and the accompanying value addition present a great opportunity for the dairy industry to take up the production and marketing of various dairy products especially traditional products on an industrial scale. Accordingly the demand for professionals with formal education in dairy technology would be increasing.
The attempt of CBSE, to introduce Dairy Technology courses for Class XII is to encourage young minds to begin their career in dairying. In the present book, the composition, standards, methods and equipment used for manufacturing different dairy products viz. traditional Indian dairy products, western dairy products and dairy byproducts has been included. The objective of this book is to make understand the students the diversity of dairy products, their principles of manufacturing and legal standards prevalent in the country that govern marketing of these products.
Vineet Joshi, IAS Chairman, CBSE

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Acknowledgements
Advisors
l Dr. S. Ayyappan, Secretary, DARE & Director General, ICAR, Krishi Bhavan, New Delhi110001
l Sh. Vineet Joshi, IAS, Chairman, CBSE, Delhi
Special Acknowledgement
l Dr. Rameshwar Singh, Project Director (DKMA), Directorate of Knowledge, Management in Agriculture, 5th Floor, Krishi Anusandhan Bhawan - I, Pusa, New Delhi-110002
l Dr. A.K. Srivastava, Director, National Dairy Research Institute (NDRI), Karnal- 132001, Haryana

TECHNICAL Group
l Dr. P. Narender Raju, Scientist, Technical Editor, Technology Division, NDRI, Karnal-132001 l Dr. Pradip Behare, Scientist, Technical Co-Editor, NDRI, Karnal-132001

Author Group
l Dr. P. Narender Raju, Scientist, Dairy, Technology Division, NDRI, Karnal-132001 l Dr. Pradip Behare, Scientist, Dairy Microbiology Division, NDRI, Karnal-132001 l Mr. Devraja, Scientist, Dairy Technology Division, NDRI, Karnal-132001 l Mr. Yogesh Khetra, Scientist, Dairy Technology Division, NDRI, Karnal-132001 l Dr. Kaushik Kharui, Senior Scientist, Dairy Technology Division, NDRI, Karnal-132001 l Mr. Shaik Abdul Hussain, Scientist, Dairy Technology Division, NDRI, Karnal

Editing and Coordination
l Dr. Biswajit Saha, Programme Officer, Vocational Education, CBSE, Delhi l Shri Dharampal Singh, Former Director, EDUSAT & Vocational Education, and Consultant (Agriculture),
CBSE, Delhi l Mrs Pragya Gaur, Consultant (Science), CBSE, Delhi

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Contents

Chapter 1

Composition, Standards, Manufacturing - Process and Equipments and

Defects during Manufacturing and Storage of Cream, Butter, Ghee, Khoa,

Channa, Paneer

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Chapter 2

Composition, Standards, Manufacturing - Process and Equipments and

Defects during Manufacturing and Storage of Curd/Dahi, Yoghurt, Chakka,

Shrikhand, Cheese

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Chapter 3

Composition, Standards, Manufacturing - Process and Equipments and

Defects during Manufacturing and Storage of Softy, Icecream, Kulfi

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Chapter 4

Composition, Standards, Manufacturing - Process and Equipments and

Defects during Manufacturing and Storage of Dried and Condensed Milk

Products (Milk Powder-Skim Milk, Whole Milk, Whitner, Condensed Milk)

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Chapter 5

Composition, Standards, Manufacturing - Process and Equipments and

Defects during Manufacturing and Storage of Dairy Byproducts (Skim Milk,

Casein, Caseinate, Whey-Concentrate, Powder, Lactose, Ghee Residue)

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Chapter 6

Sensory Evaluation of Milk and Milk Products

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Dairy Products Technology Theory
(Time 120 hrs)

S. No.

Chapter

Hours

Weightege (Marks)

1. Chapter 1

25

12.5

2. Chapter 2

20

10

3. Chapter 3

20

10

4. Chapter 4

25

12.5

5. Chapter 5

20

10

6. Chapter 6

10

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Dairy Products Technology

Chapter-1
Composition, Standards, Manufacturing – Process and Equipment and Defects during Manufacturing and Storage of Cream, Butter, Ghee, Khoa, Chhana and Paneer

Cream
Objective
To learn the Production, Processing and Storage of Cream

Introduction
In the Indian dietary regimen, milk fat in the form of cream, butter and ghee contributes significantly towards nourishment of people of almost all age groups. These products are good sources of fat soluble vitamins A, D, E and K. In the ancient vedic literature it is mentioned that ghee derived from cow milk has got excellent nutritional and tonic qualities specially beneficial to persons convalescing after chronic illness and bone fracture. Cream is a fat rich component and has been known from time immemorial as the fatty layer that rises to the top portion of the milk when left undisturbed. Cream is sold in many varieties. Although used for several purposes, it is primarily something of a luxury because of its excellent flavor, body and texture.

Definition
Cream may be defined as that portion of milk which is rich in milk fat or that portion of milk into which fat has been gathered and which contains a large portion of milk fat, or when milk fat is concentrated into a fraction of the original milk.
According to the FSSR Rules (2011), cream excluding sterilized cream is the product of cow or buffalo milk or a combination there of which conations not less than 25 per cent milk fat (Table 1.1). Cream is rich in energy giving fat and fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K, the contents of which depends on the fat level in cream.

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Classification
Cream is not a definite specific substance. It contains all the milk constituents but in varying proportions. Cream for sale to consumers is produced with different fat contents.Cream of lower fat content, 10 – 18%, is often referred to as half cream or coffee cream, it is increasingly used for desserts and in cooking. Cream with a higher fat content, typically 35 – 40 %, is usually considerably thicker. It can be whipped into a thick froth and is therefore referred to as “whipping cream”. The milk fat in cream may vary from 10 to 75 per cent.
Cram may be classified broadly as: (a) market cream, which is used for direct consumptions, and (b) manufacturing cream, which is used for the manufacturing of dairy products.
The various types of cream are: 1. Table cream 2. Light cream 3. Coffee cream 4. Whipping cream 5. Heavy cream 6. Plastic cream

Table 1.1: Chemical composition of cream

Constituents Water Fat Protein Lactose Ash
Total solids Solids not fat

Percentage 45.45 - 68.2%
25 - 60% 1.69 - 2.54% 2.47 - 3.71% 0.37 - 0.56% 31.8 -54.55% 4.55 - 6.80%

Production of Cream: The basic principle of cream separation, whether by gravity or centrifugal method, is based on the fact that milk fat is lighter than the skim milk portion.

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Dairy Products Technology
MilkManufacturingCreamNdriStandards