Department of Sugar Technology MSc in Sugar Technology

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Department of Sugar Technology MSc in Sugar Technology

Transcript Of Department of Sugar Technology MSc in Sugar Technology

Department of Sugar Technology MSc in Sugar Technology Entrance Examination Syllabus (2014-15)
Eligibility for admission to M.Sc Sugar Technology is a candidate passed in B.Sc degree with Chemistry/Bio Chemistry as one of the optional subjects/B.E degree/B.Sc(Ag) with 45 % for GM and 40% for SC/ST/Cat-I
Unit I.
General Chemistry Extra-nuclear Structure of atoms: Bohr's theory for hydrogen atom (simple mathematical treatment), atomic spectra of hydrogen and Bohr's model, Sommerfeld's model, quantum numbers and their significance, Pauli's exclusion principle, Hund's rule, electronic configuration of many-electron atoms, Aufbau principle and its limitations.
Radioactivity and Nuclear Structure of Atoms: Natural radioactivity; radioactive disintegration series, group displacement law, law of radioactive decay, half-life of radio elements. Atomic Nucleus: Stability of atomic nucleus, n/p ratio, nuclear binding energy, mass defect. Nuclear reactions: fission, fusion, transmutation of elements.
Chemical Periodicity: classification of elements on the basis of electronic configuration: general characteristics of s-, p-, d- and f-block elements. Positions of hydrogen and noble gases. Atomic and ionic radii, ionization potential, electron affinity, and electronegativity; periodic and group-wise variation of above properties in respect of s- and p- block elements.
Unit II. Organic Chemistry I Reactions involving the detection of special elements N, S and Cl in an organic compound (only Lassaigne’s test). Reactions involving the detection of the following functional groups: Aromatic primary amino group (Diazo-coupling reaction); Nitro group (Mulliken Barker’s test); Carboxylic acid group (reaction with NaHCO3); Phenolic OH (FeCl3 test); Carbonyl (aldehyde and ketone) group (DNP Test, etc.).
Inductive effect, resonance and resonance energy. Homolytic and heterolytic bond breaking, electrophiles and nucleophiles; carbocations, carbanions and radicals (stability and reactivity) Stereochemistry of carbon compounds: Different types of isomerism, geometrical and optical isomerism, optical activity, asymmetric carbon atom, elements of symmetry (plane and centre), chirality, enantiomers and diastereomers, R and S nomenclature, E and Z nomenclature, D and L nomenclature, Fischer projection formula of simple molecules containing one and two asymmetric carbon atoms.
Unit III
Organic Chemistry II Alkanes, alkenes and alkynes: Synthesis and chemical reactivity of alkanes, mechanism of free-radical halogenation of alkanes, general methods of synthesis of alkenes, electrophilic addition reaction, mechanism of bromination and hydrohalogenation, Markownikoff's addition, peroxide effect, hydroboration, ozonide formation, polymerization reaction of alkenes (definition and examples only), general methods of synthesis, acidity, hydration and substitution reactions of alkynes.
Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Structure of benzene, general mechanism of electrophilic substitution, reactions of benzene, synthesis of aromatic compounds using nitration, halogenation, Friedel-Craft's reactions.
Aldehydes and ketones: the nature of carbonyl group, methods of synthesis, physical properties, Cannizzaro reaction, relative reactivities and distinction of aldehydes and ketones, Aldol condensation (with mechanism), Perkin reaction, Benzoin condensation, Claisen condensation, Oxidation and reduction reactions. Alkyl and Aryl halides: SN1, SN2, E1 and E2 reactions (elementary mechanistic aspects), Saytzeff and Hoffmann elimination reactions. Nucleophilic aromatic substitution.
Unit IV Organic Chemistry III Carboxylic acids and their derivatives: acidity of carboxylic acids and effects of substituents on acidity, chemical reactivity, Phenols: synthesis, acidic character and chemical reactions of phenols, Kolbe reactions, Reimer-Tiemann reaction, Fries rearrangement, Claisen rearrangement.
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Organometallic compounds: Grignard reagents – preparations and reactions, application of Grignard reagents in organic synthesis. [10-, 20- and 30-alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids.] Organic compounds containing nitrogen: aromatic nitro compounds – reduction under different conditions. [acidic, neutral and alkaline]. Methods of synthesis of aliphatic amines, Hofmann degradation, Gabriel's phthalimide synthesis, distinction of primary, secondary and tertiary amines; methods of synthesis of aromatic amines, basicity of aliphatic and aromatic amines.
Carbohydrates: Introduction, occurrence and classification of carbohydrates, constitution of glucose, osazone formation, reactions of glucose and fructose, mutarotation, cyclic structures – pyranose and furanose forms (determination of ringsize excluded), epimerization, chain-lengthening (Kiliani –Fischer method) and chainshortening (Ruff’s method) in aldoses. Amino acids, Proteins: methods of synthesis of α –amino acids (glycine and alanine using Gabriel's phthalimide synthesis and Strecker synthesis). Physical properties. Zwitterion structures, isoelectric point.
Unit V. Inorganic chemistry I Ionic bonding: General characteristics of ionic compounds, sizes of ions, radiusratio rule and its limitation. Lattice energy, Born Haber cycle. Covalent bonding: General characteristics of covalent compounds, valence-bond approach, directional character of covalent bond, hybridization involving s-, p-, dorbitals, multiple bonding, Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) concept, shapes of simple molecules and ions (examples from main group chemistry). Bond moment and dipole moment, partial ionic character of covalent bonds, Fajan's rules. Hydrogen bonding and its effect on physical and chemical properties. Coordinate bonds and Coordination compounds: complex salts and double salts, Warner's theory of coordination, chelate complexes, stereochemistry of coordination numbers 4 and 6. IUPAC nomenclature of coordination complexes (mononuclear complexes only).
Basic inorganic chemistry II Comparative study of p-block elements: Group trends in electronic configuration, modification of pure elements, common oxidation states, inert pair effect, and their important compounds in respect of the following groups of elements: i) B-Al-Ga-In-Tl; ii) C-Si-Ge-Sn-Pb; iii) N-P-As-Sb-Bi; iv) O-S-Se-Te; v) F-Cl-Br-I
Unit VI Inorganic Chemistry II/Analytical Chemistry Formation of sublimates; principle of flame test, borax-bead test, cobalt nitrate test, fusion test, chromyl chloride test; analytical reactions for the detection of nitrate, nitrite, halides, phosphate, arsenate, arsenite, sulphide, thiosulphate, sulphate, thiocyanate, borate, boric acid, carbonate. Analytical reactions for the detection of Cr3+, Fe3+, , Ni2+, Cu2+, As3+, Mn2+, Importance of common-ion effect in the separation of Group II cations, and Group III cations.
Comparative study of s-block elements: Group trends in electronic configuration, modification of pure elements, common oxidation states, inert pair effect, chemical properties and reactions in respect of the following group elements: i) Li-Na-K ii) Be-Mg-Ca-Sr-Ba Extraction and purification of elements from natural sources: Li, Cr, Ni, Ag, Au. Electroplating, galvanizing and anodizing.
Gravimetric Analysis: Solubility product and common ion effect. Requirements of gravimetry. Gravimetric estimation of chloride, sulphate, lead, barium, nickel, copper and zinc. Volumetric Analysis: Primary and secondary standard substances, principles of acid-base, xidation –reduction, and complexometric titrations; acid-base, redox and metal-ion indicators. Principles of estimation of mixtures of NaHCO3 and Na2CO3 (by acidimetry); iron, copper, manganese, chromium (by redox titration); zinc, aluminum, calcium, magnesium (by complexometric EDTA titration). Chromatographic methods of analysis: column chromatography and thin layer chromatography.
Unit VII Physical chemistry I Gaseous state: Gas laws, kinetic theory of gas, collision and gas pressure, derivation of gas laws from kinetic theory, average kinetic energy of translation, Boltzmann constant and absolute scale of temperature, Maxwell's distribution law of molecular speeds (without derivation), most probable, average and root mean square speed of gas molecules, principle
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of equipartition of energy (without derivation). Mean free path and collision frequencies. Heat capacity of gases (molecular basis); viscosity of gases. Real gases, compressibility factor, deviation from ideality, van der Waals equation of state, critical phenomena, continuity of states, critical constants. Liquid state: physical properties of liquids and their measurements: surface tension and viscosity. Chemical kinetics and catalysis: order and molecularity of reactions, rate laws and rate equations for first order and second order reactions (differential and integrated forms); zero order reactions. Determination of order of reactions. Temperature dependence of reaction rate, energy of activation. Catalytic reactions: homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic reactions, autocatalytic reactions, catalyst poisons, catalyst promoters (typical examples).
Thermodynamics: Definition of thermodynamic terms: Intensive and extensive variables, isolated, closed and open systems. Cyclic, reversible and irreversible processes. Thermodynamic functions and their differentials. Zeroth law of thermodynamics, concept of heat (q) and work (w). First law of thermodynamics, internal energy (U) and enthalpy (H); relation between Cp and Cv, calculation of w, q, ∆U and ∆H for expansion of ideal gas under isothermal and adiabatic conditions for reversible and irreversible processes including free expansion. Joule-Thomson Coefficient and inversion temperature. Application of First law of thermodynamics, Bond-dissociation energy, Born haber cycle for calculation of lattice energy. Kirchhoff’s equation, relation between ∆H and ∆U of a reaction. Spontaneous processes, heat engine, Carnot cycle and its efficiency, Second law of thermodynamics, Entropy (S) as a state function, molecular interpretation of entropy, entropy changes in simple transformations. Free energy: Gibbs function (G) and Helmholtz function (A), Gibbs-Helmholtz equation, criteria for thermodynamic equilibrium and spontaneity of a process.
Unit VIII.
Physical chemistry II Chemical equilibrium: chemical equlibria of homogeneous and heterogeneous systems, derivation of expression of equilibrium constants; temperature, pressure and concentration dependence of equilibrium constants (KP, KC, KX); Le Chatelier's principle of dynamic equilibrium. Colloids: colloids and crystalloids, classification of colloids, preparation and purification of colloids: ferric hydroxide sol and gold sol. Properties of colloids: Brownian motion, peptization, dialysis, Tyndal effect and its applications. Protecting colloids, gold number, isoelectric points, coagulation of colloids by electrolytes, Schulze-Hardy rule.
Acids-bases and solvents: Modern aspects of acids and bases: Arrhenius theory, theory of solvent system, Bronsted and Lowry's concept, Lewis concept with typical examples, applications and limitations. Strengths of acids and bases (elementary idea). Ionization of weak acids and bases in aqueous solutions, application of Ostwald's dilution law, ionization constants, ionic product of water, pH-scale, buffer solutions and their pH values, buffer actions; hydrolysis of salts. Solutions of electrolytes: Electrolytic conductance, specific conductance, equivalent conductance and molar conductance of electrolytic solutions. Influence of temperature and dilution on weak electrolytes.
Electrode potential: Electrode potentials, Nernst Equation, reference electrodes: normal hydrogen electrode and calomel electrodes, Emf of electrochemical cells and its measurement, electrode potential series and its applications. Solutions of non-electrolytes: Colligative properties of solution, Raoult's Law, relative lowering of vapor pressure, osmosis and osmotic pressure; elevation of boiling point and depression of freezing point of solvents.
Unit IX Industrial/Environmental chemistry Polymers: Basic concept, structure and types of plastics, polythene, polystyrene, phenol-formaldehydes, PVC; manufacture, physical properties and uses of natural rubber, synthetic rubber, silicone rubber; synthetic fibres: Nylon-66, polyester, terylene, rayon; foaming agents, plasticizers and stabilizers.
Paints, Varnishes and Synthetic Dyes: Primary constituents of a paint, binders and solvents for paints. Oil based paints, latex paints, baked-on paints (alkyd resins). Constituents of varnishes. Formulation of paints and varnishes. Synthesis of Methyl orange, Congo red, Malachite green, Crystal violet. Drugs and pharmaceuticals: Concept and necessity of drugs and pharmaceuticals. Preparation, and uses of Aspirin, Paracetamol, Sulphadiazine, Quinine, Chloroquine, Phenobarbital, Metronidazole. Fermentation Chemicals : Production, and purification of ethyl alcohol, citric acid, lactic acid, Vitamin B12, Penicillin.
The Atmosphere: Composition and structure of the atmosphere: troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere and thermosphere. Ozone layer and its role. Major air pollutants: CO, SO2, NO and particulate matters –their origins and harmful effects,
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problems of ozone layer depletion, green house effect, acid rain and photochemical smog. Air pollution. Air quality standard. Air pollution control measures: cyclone collector, electrostatic precipitator, catalytic converter. The Hydrosphere : Environmental role of water, natural water sources, water treatment for industrial, domestic and laboratory uses. Water pollutants : action of soaps and detergents, phosphates, industrial effluents, agricultural run off, domestic wastes; thermal pollution radioactive pollution and their effects on animal and plant life, water pollution episodes. Water pollution control measures : waste water treatment: chemical treatment and microbial treatment; water quality standards : DO. BOD, COD, TDS and hardness parameters.
Unit X. Biochemistry Introduction to Biochemistry, water as a biological solvent, weak acid and bases, pH, buffers, Handerson-Hasselbalch equation, physiological buffers, fitness of the aqueous environment for living organism Amino acids, Peptides and Proteins : Amino acids –Preparative methods, physical properties, dipolar nature, chemical reactions and configuration. Peptides : Peptide-linkage, peptide synthesis and structure of polypeptides. Proteins : General characteristics and secondary structure. Alkaloids : Occurrence, importance, general structural features, Hofmann exhaustive methylation, structure and synthesis of nicotine and piperine. Carbohydrates : Sucrose, starch and cellulose (structural aspects only). Vitamins and Hormones : Chemical constitution and physiological functions of vitamins A, B2 (Riboflavin), C (Ascorbic acid); Thyroxin and estrone. Terpens : Occurrence, isolation, classification, Isoprene rule, structure and synthesis of citral, geraniol and a-terpineol. Drugs : Classification, preparation and uses of the following : (i) Antipyretics and Analgesics : Aspirin, Paracetamol, Phenylbutazone. (ii) Sulpha drugs : Sulphanilamide, Sulphapyridine, sulphathiazole, sulphaguani-dine. Mechanism of action of sulpha drugs. (iii)Antimalarials : Chloroquine, Primaquine. (iv) Antibiotics : Chloramphenicol. History, general characteristics, nomenclature, IUB enzyme classification (rationale, overview and specific examples), significance of numbering system, Definition with examples of holoenzyme, apoenzyme, coenzymes, cofactors activators, inhibitors, active site (identification of groups excluded), metalloenzymes, units of enzyme activity, specific enzymes, isoenzymes, monomeric enzymes, oligomeric enzymes and multienzyme complexes, enzyme specificity. Historical perspective, nature of non enzymatic and enzymatic catalysis, measurement and expression of enzyme activityenzyme assays, Definition of IU, Katal, enzyme turn over number and specific activity, role of non protein organic molecules and inorganic ions, coenzyme, prosthetic groups, role of vitamins as coenzymes.
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SynthesisReactionsStructurePropertiesElements