Effect of plant growth regulators on growth and yield

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Effect of plant growth regulators on growth and yield

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The Asian Journal of Horticulture; Vol. 6 No. 1; (June, 2011) : 170-172 Received : February, 2011; Accepted : March, 2011
Research Paper
Effect of plant growth regulators on growth and yield parameters of okra
AVINASH A. DHAGE, P.K. NAGRE, K.K. BHANGRE AND ANAND KUMAR PAPPU

See end of the article for authors’ affiliations
Correspondence to:
AVINASH A. DHAGE Department of Horticulture, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, AKOLA (M.S.) INDIA Email : [email protected] rediffmail.com

ABSTRACT
A field experiment was conducted with different concentration of GA3, IAA and NAA as seed treatment followed by foliar spray 30 DAS in Okra variety Akola Bahar in Randomized Block
Design with three replications. The data revealed that significant effect for plant height (107.74
cm), internodal length (3.1 cm) was obtained in treatment GA3 at 150ppm whereas, numbers of branches (3.53) were found maximum in treatment IAA at 100ppm. However, significantly minimum
number of days required for first flowering (39.67 days) and first harvesting (44.67 days) were
recorded in treatment GA3 at 150 ppm. The significantly maximum parentage of fruit set (74.79) and fruit yield per hectare were observed in same treatment.

Dhage, Avinash A., Nagre, P.K., Bhangre, K.K. and Pappu, Anand Kumar (2011). Effect of plant growth regulators on growth and yield parameters of okra, Asian J. Hort., 6 (1) : 170-172.

Key words : Okra, Plant growth regulator, GA3, IAA, NAA

Okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench] is herbaceous annual plant belongs to family Malvacae growing in tropical and subtropical parts of the world. Now it is grown through out the year for its tender green fruits. India is the largest producer of okra. Besides being a vegetable, it also has medicinal and industrial important.
Role of plant growth regulators in crop production is well known phenomenon. Its use in crop promotes growth along the longitudinal area, increase number of branches, early flower initiation, fruit set, fruit quality and subsequently contributes towards higher production when applied at various concentration. Due to this it is possible to achieve the desirable standards and norms in term of quality for exportable production.
Therefore, present investigation was carried out to find out suitable plant growth regulator, concentration and its effect on growth and yield parameters of okra.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
An experiment entitled effect of plant growth regulators on growth, yield and quality of okra was carried out during the year 2009-2010 at the Main garden, Department of Horticulture, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola with the objectives to study the effect of different plant growth regulators on growth, yield and quality of okra and to find out the suitable concentration

of plant growth regulator on growth, yield and quality of okra. Okra variety ‘Akola Bahar’ was sown at 60cm x 30cm spacing during Kharif season with a net plot size of 4.5m2. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with three replications and thirteen treatments including plant growth regulators as GA3 (50, 100, 150, 200ppm), IAA (25, 50, 75, 100ppm), NAA (10, 20, 30, 40ppm) and one control (water soaked and foliar spray). Each treatment comprised seed soaking followed by foliar spray 30 DAS.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The response with growth regulators depend upon the amount of particular compound absorbed by the seed or plant and ability of seed or plant to respond to the stimulus of the chemical applied. It is however, belived that the mechanism of action of a growth regulator in plant through same fundamental process involving the activities of the cell and the enzyme concerned in the process.
Plant height: Data presented in Table 1 showed that significantly
maximum height of the plant was recorded under treatment GA3 at 150ppm (107.74cm), followed by GA3 at 200ppm (101.21 cm) which was at par with treatment NAA at 30ppm (102.40 cm).

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AVINASH A. DHAGE, P.K. NAGRE, K.K. BHANGRE AND ANAND KUMAR PAPPU

171

Table 1: Effect of plant growth regulators on growth and yield parameters of bhendi

Treatments

Plant height (cm) No. of branches /plant Internodal length (cm)

T1 : Control

82.42

2.83

2.34

T2 : IAA at 25 ppm

87.75

3.03

2.5

T3 : IAA at 50 ppm

87.99

3.42

2.73

T4 : IAA at 75 ppm

91.21

3.36

2.61

T5 : IAA at 100 ppm

86.21

3.53

2.53

T6 : GA3 at 50 ppm

97.27

3.16

2.68

T7 : GA3 at 100 ppm

98.40

3.13

2.85

T8 : GA3 at 150 ppm

107.74

3.11

3.1

T9 : GA3 at 200 ppm

101.21

2.89

2.87

T10 : NAA at 10 ppm

85.61

3.08

2.5

T11 : NAA at 20 ppm

100.03

3.22

2.76

T12 : NAA at 30 ppm

102.40

3.05

2.43

T13 : NAA at 40 ppm

98.04

2.93

2.38

Mean

94.33

3.13

2.64

‘F’ test

Sig.

Sig.

Sig.

S.E (m)±

0.60

0.30

0.025

C.D. (P=0.05)

1.75

0.87

0.072

Day required to first flowering 45.17 43.50 43.33 43.17 44.00 41.58 41.33 39.67 43.00 41.42 41.67 42.25 42.75 42.53 Sig. 0.14 0.41

The increase in height of plant was due to stem elongation. GA3 increase auxin production at apex and also accelerate the cell division in cambium or other tissue. Similar results were reported by Katkar (1982) in okra.
Number of branches per plant:: Significantly, maximum numbers of branches were
recorded in treatment IAA at 100ppm (3.53 cm). The treatment GA3 at 200 ppm showed significantly minimum number of branches per plant (2.89) .
It is due to the apical dominance at the apex. IAA increases metabolic activities in meristimatic cell. Combination of vigorous metabolic sink at apical meristem, enhanced by higher IAA concentration and lateral bud isolated from main stream, it inhabits development of lateral bud. These results are supported by the finding of Mittal (2002) in pea.
Internodal length: Data presented in Table 1 showed that significantly
maximum inter-nodal length (3.10cm) was recorded in treatment GA3 at 150ppm while, treatment NAA at 40 ppm showed significantly minimum internodal length (2.38 cm).
The elongation of tissue or cell may bring either through greater torgor pressure or by the growth of enclosing cell wall which under the influence of GA3 was increased. Similar results were also reported by Reddy and Subramhanium (2001) in tomato.
[Asian J. Hort., Vol. 6 (1); June, 2011]

Days required to first flowering and first harvesting: Significantly early flowering (39.67 days) and
harvesting (44.67 days) was recorded in the treatment GA3 at 100ppm.while, the treatment of IAA at 100 ppm recorded significantly late flowering (44.00 days) and harvesting (49.00 days).
It is due to the fact that the plant on account of its rapid and increased vegetative growth build up suitable carbohydrate contained. This accumulation of accelerated photosynthates in the plant more than that required. The findings are supported by findings of Sayed and Khan (2000) in pea.
Percentage of fruit set: Results presented in Table 2 showed that significantly
maximum percentage of fruit set (74.79%) was recorded in treatment GA3 at 150ppm while, significantly minimum percentage of fruit set was observed in treatment NAA at 30 ppm (66.18%).
It was found due to moderate and consistent increase in carbohydrates contents within plant resulted in the bearing of more number of fruits due to treatment of GA3. The results are in conformity with the results found by Singh and Mukherji (2000) in chilli..
Total fruit yield: The treatment GA3 at 150ppm recorded significantly
highest yield per plant (157.45g) and yield per hectare (87.47q) whereas significantly minimum yield per plant (134.90 g) and yield per hectare (74.94 q) were recorded
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172

EFFECT OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS ON GROWTH & YIELD PARAMETERS OF OKRA

Table 2 : Effect of plant growth regulators on growth and yield parameters of bhendi

Treatments

Day required to first harvest

Fruit set %

Fruit yield/plant (g)

T1 : Control

51.18

66.14

117.26

T2 : IAA at 25 ppm

48.50

71.41

135.41

T3 : IAA at 50 ppm

48.33

69.00

143.88

T4 : IAA at 75 ppm

48.17

70.08

138.97

T5 : IAA at 100 ppm

49.00

70.62

137.23

T6 : GA3 at 50 ppm

45.42

70.98

135.80

T7 : GA3 at 100 ppm

46.33

70.30

141.87

T8 : GA3 at 150 ppm

44.67

74.79

157.45

T9 : GA3 at 200 ppm

48.00

69.00

140.17

T10 : NAA at 10 ppm

46.42

69.51

137.80

T11 : NAA at 20 ppm

46.67

67.17

150.16

T12 : NAA at 30 ppm

47.25

66.18

141.33

T13 : NAA at 40 ppm

47.75

66.87

134.90

Mean

47.51

69.39

139.40

‘F’ test

Sig.

Sig.

Sig.

S.E. (m)±

0.15

1.00

1.62

Fruit yield/ha (q) 65.14 75.23 79.93 77.21 76.24 75.45 78.82 87.47 77.87 76.55 83.42 78.52 74.94 77.45 Sig. 0.90

in treatment NAA at 40 ppm. Similar results have been reported by Bala Hussaini
and Hari Babu (2004) in okra who observed that application of GA3 was responsible for increasing total yield. Increase in photosynthetic activity produces more carbohydrates which directly influenced the fruit size, number of fruit and ultimately final yield.
Authors’ affiliations: P.K. NAGRE, K.K. BHANGRE AND ANAND KUMAR PAPPU, Department of Horticulture, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, AKOLA (M.S.) INDIA

Mittal, T.S. (2002). Growth of tomato plant as influenced by growth regulators. Prog. Hort., 2 (11): 57-64.
Reddy, S. and Subramaniam, N. (2001). Growth and yield of tomato as influenced by foliar spray of plant growth regulators. South Indian J. Hort., 50 (1): 206-208.
Sayed, A. and Khan, H. (2000). Effect of presowing seed treatment on yield of garden pea. Allahabad Farmer, 45 (3): 27-30.
Singh, L. and Mukherjee, S. (2000). Effect of foliar application of urea and NAA on yield and yield attributes of chili. Agric. Sci. Digest, 20 (2): 116-117.

REFERENCES
Bala Hussaini, M.G. and HariBabu, K. (2004). Effect of plant bioregulators on yield and yield attributes of bhendi cv. Arka Abhay. Orrisa J. Hort., 32(1):108-109
Katkar,S.N. (1982). Effect of pre sowing treatment with growth regulator under recommended and reduced dose of fertilizer on growth and yield of okra. M.Sc. (Ag.) Thesis, Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola, M.S. (India).

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[Asian J. Hort., Vol. 6 (1); June, 2011]

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