Effects Of Behavioral Skills Training In Staff

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Effects Of Behavioral Skills Training In Staff

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Running head: EFFECTS OF BEHAVIORAL SKILLS TRAINING IN STAFF TRAINING. 1
TALLINN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY School of Business and Governance
Department of Work and Organizational Psychology
Kyle J. Mokma AN EVALUATION OF BEHAVIORAL SKILLS TRAINING ON TRAINEE PERFORMANCE OF JOBS SKILLS: A DEMONSTRATION OF GENERALIZING BEHAVIORAL SKILLS TRAINING TO ORGANIZATIONAL TRAINING PROGRAMS
. Master’s Thesis
Supervisor: Velli Parts, PhD
Tallinn 2018

Running head: EFFECTS OF BEHAVIORAL SKILLS TRAINING IN STAFF TRAINING. 2

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT……………………………………………………………………………………….4 LIST OF ABREVIATIONS……………………………………………………………………….5 INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………….………………...………6
1.1 Methods in Organizational training programs…………………………………..……10 1.2 Current problems in developing skills……………………………………………….15 1.3 Organizations goals and for conducting skills training………………………………19 Behavioral skills training………………………….…………...………………..………………21 2.1 Behavioral skills training……………………………………………………………..21 2.2 Instruction……………………..……………………………………………………..21 2.3 Model………………………………………………………………………………...22 2.4 Rehearsal…………………………………………………………………………..…23 2.5 Feedback…………………………………………………………………………..…23 2.6 In-situ……………………………………………………………………………...…24 METHODS…..………………………………………………………………………………..…25 3.1 Participants and settings…………………………………………………………...…25 3.2 Materials……………………………………………………………………………...25 3.3 Design………………………………………………………………………………..26 3.4 Dependent measures and data collection…………………………………………….27 3.5 Procedures……………………………………………………………………………28
3.5.1 Baseline…………………………………………………………………….28 3.5.2 Behavioral skills trainings………………………………………………….28 3.5.3 Post behavioral skills training probe…………………………………….…29 3.5.4 Social validity and participant satisfaction…………………………………30 RESULTS…………...………………..……………………………………………………..…..31 4.1 Participant 1 ……………………………………………………………………….....31 4.1.1 Baseline…………………………………………………………………….31 4.1.2 Behavioral skills training…………………………………………………...31 4.1.3 Post behavioral skills training probe………………………………………..31 4.2 Participant 2………………………………………………………………………..…31 4.2.1 Baseline…………………………………………………………………….32 4.2.2 Behavioral skills training………………………………………………..….32 4.2.3 Post behavioral skills training probe………………………………………..32 4.3 Participant 3…………………………………………………………………………..32 4.3.1 Baseline…………………………………………………………………….32 4.3.2 Behavioral skills training…………………………………………………...32 4.3.3 Post behavioral skills training probe……………………………………….33 4.4 Social Validity and Participant Satisfaction…………………………………………..36 DISCUSSION…………………………………..………………………………………………..37 5.1 Limitations…………………………………………………………………………...38 5.2 Recommendations for further research……………………………………………….39 CONCLUSION…….………………………………………………………………………….…41 REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………………………..43 APPENDICES…………………..…………………………………………………………….....46

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ABSTRACT
Organizations have an ongoing need for adequate training. This need is prevalent regarding both knowledge and performance-based skills. This paper describes the effects of behavioral skills training on the performance of 3 graduate students in a university practicum course to correctly implement discontinuous measurement procedures using instruction, video modeled role-playing scenario consisting of a client and a therapist, rehearsal, and feedback. None of the students had any previous training implementing or demonstrating discontinuous measurement procedures. A Multiple baseline experimental design across participants was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the training.. Results showed significant improvement when compared to baseline. Post behavioral skills training probes showed training generalized to the natural work environment. DESCRIPTORS: behavioral skills training, registered behavior technician task list, skills training, university training, graduate training, curriculum development.

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

ABA RBT BST IN-SITU IN-VIVO

Applied Behavior Analysis Registered Behavior Technician Behavioral Skills Training In Situation Via video instruction

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INTRODUCTION
Organizations and subsequently training managers are continuously looking for the most cost effective, useful, and valid training methods to use within their organizations to meet their training needs. A significant amount of the studies on training effectiveness has focused on factors within the formal training context or the natural environment. These factors include such variables as the design and content of the training (Noe, 1986). Few studies have attempted to measure the extent to which training learned in a simulated environment transfer to the actual work environment (Baldwin & Ford, 1988). There is growing recognition of a “transfer problem” in organizational training today (Michalak, 1981). This information is useful due to the fact that research that examines the influence of the work environment on post training behaviors is valuable, it helps to move beyond the question of “does training work” and more towards a better understanding of “why training works” (Campbell, 1988; Tannenbaum & Yuki, 1992).
Behavioral skills training is a teaching package consisting of a combination of methods that when used together create an effective technique for teaching individuals via instructions, modeling, rehearsal, and feedback (Ward-Horner, 2017. pg.75). The first step is instruction which can be provided via written or verbal form. Most of the reason for this step is to ensure that the trainee has been provided with a sufficient amount of information before attempting to engage in the task. The next step is modeling or demonstration. In this step trainees are shown how to correctly engage in the task and or complete the task according to mastery criteria. In the third step the trainee is required to demonstrate or imitate the trainer’s behavior in an attempt to mirror exactly what the instructor did just previously. After the trainee has had an opportunity to engage in the behavior specific feedback is provided depending on how accurately the

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participant reached the mastery criteria set for the specific task or goal. Recycle or repeat would be an informal fifth step to the behavioral skills training package. In this step, steps 1-4 would be repeated over and over again until the trainee had reached a specified mastery criterion. Behavioral skills training was founded within the field of Applied Behavior Analysis. “Some current dimensions of applied behavior analysis” by Bear, Wolf, and Risley outline and defined the seven dimensions of Applied Behavior Analysis. One of these dimensions is “Effective.” The article states “If the application of behavioral techniques dos not produce large enough effects for practical value, then application has failed.” (Bear, Wolf, & Risley, 1968. P 96). This passage stressed that in order for a training technique to be effective the results need to be relevant to future research, study, or applications. This focus on many studies have shown that behavioral skills training can be used to train human services staff in various training settings. This research has included training oral care staff to conduct a basic preference assessment in order to increase the efficacy of providing oral care to individuals who have difficulty completing necessary dental examinations such as those with autism or other developmental disabilities (Graudins, 2012). Training educators to conduct mand and tact training (Nigro-Bruzzi & Strurmey, 2010). Training bachelor’s degree students to conduct multiple step behavior analytic procedures in completing functional analysis (Iwata et al, 2002). Training young children safety skills to prevent injuries due to a firearm (Miltenberger, 2008). Despite the success of these studies little research has been done to confirm that behavioral skills training can be applied to adults within formal organizational training programs and obtain similar success.
Despite the fact that the need for effective training has been demonstrated in a wide range of job environments and regarding a wide range of skills. Practitioners still seem to lag behind the

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research. Implementing little in the way of practical hands on training for the specified tasks targeted as needing to be changed. Most of the focus seems to still be on providing people with motivational seminars and more and more and more and more instruction. Instruction that does not advocate for or include a component where an individual actually has to practice the skill required. This might be due to several reasons. These reasons include that it is time consuming to attempt to train multiple individuals in a repetitive fashion up to a specified criterion. May times the skills needed to be trained are lengthy and numerous. Many times the number of skills within what is called a behavioral chain include multiple steps. These behavioral chains create issues in a training environment where there is often limited time and where time is money as is said.
In addition to time constraints other factors that often inhibit human resources or training staff from implementing the practical training that is needed in order to reach an effective level of staff performance is resources and training for the trainers. If the trainers have a rich history of learning from didactic teaching, speeches, explaining the tasks, and then assessing the degree to which a person or trainee can recite vocally when the task is and how to accomplish that task then they is the style of instruction they are likely to offer. Didactic teaching or talking at a trainee is much easier than addressing the performance of each individual as what is necessary with behavioral skills training. Trainers need to be compensated, trained, and prepared to provide the level of effort required to implement behavioral skills training properly, adequately, and completely.
The purpose of this research is to explore the efficacy of a behavioral skills training treatment package to teach university practicum students to independently and correctly engage in multistep measurement procedures during a graduate program practicum course, and to test to what extent

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those results will generalize to on the job work environments. The research also provides evidenced that suggests behavioral skills training can be a useful, highly generalizable, cost effective training method that can be used to meet the training needs of organizations such as the needs of higher education job training or practicum training courses. The present study provides evidence that suggests using behavioral skills training outside of its current applications within human services settings, during the course of on the job training, can be used effectively in simulated training settings. The study demonstrates that classroom training that includes a simulated video component can provide valuable learning opportunities that allow for skills to transfer to the actual on the job work environments. Training conducted using instruction, video training models, imitation or rehearsal, and feedback that are similar to those that have been used in similar research or in everyday HR training environments where training is conducted away from the environments where the job skills being trained are intended to be used can yield significant and valuable results in the way of providing organizations and human resource training departments an evidenced based, cost effective or cost neutral training package that is able to train a variety of skills in a variety of different environments to a variety of different populations of trainees in order to successfully fulfill the training needs of that organization.

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1. SKILLS TRAINING WITHIN ORGANIZATIONS
1.1 Skills training within organizational training programs
One of the most important benefits of training for an organization is that, it provides skills inside the organization which can reduce the costs regarding an organization's operating budget (Miri, S. A. 2014). (Becker, 1998) suggest, “effective training certainly has the potential to increase knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) and to enable employees to leverage their KSAs for organizational benefit. It is estimated that while American industries annually spend up to 100 billion on training and development and not more than 10% of these expenditures actually result in transfer to job (Georgenson, 1982). These points stress the importance training has on an organization as it includes the stated goal of reducing overall costs and highlighting that training is an essential and critical area in which to influence organizational effectiveness.
Despite the stated importance mentioned above, definitions and examples of effective staff training and methods include a wide range of methods and styles. These methods and styles can include those of a didactic nature or passive instruction, and or those of a more practical nature, such as experiential learning and or more specifically behavioral skills training. When defining training objectives, the terms knowledge, skills, values, beliefs and attitudes often times do not go far enough to specify exactly what actions or results are expected. training programs should focus on specific skills that are operationally and functionally defined before attempting to implement interventions to effect performance. It is necessary to have a clear idea of what specific behaviors will be considered correct and which behaviors or series of behaviors will not be correct. One area of application where behavioral skills training is currently being used is in the field of applied behavior analysis during the provision of job training to human service personnel who are
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