Effects of Salt Stress on the Enzyme Activity and Chlorophyll

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Effects of Salt Stress on the Enzyme Activity and Chlorophyll

Transcript Of Effects of Salt Stress on the Enzyme Activity and Chlorophyll

International Journal of Forestry and Horticulture (IJFH) Volume 4, Issue 3, 2018, PP 1-7 ISSN No. (Online) 2454–9487 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20431/2454-9487.0403001 www.arcjournals.org

Effects of Salt Stress on the Enzyme Activity and Chlorophyll Content of Bush Cinquefoil (Potentilla fruticosa L.)
Hang LIU, Tian MA, Cheng-xia ZHANG*, Qun XIA, Tao JU, Ju-xiang DU, Ji-ping YUAN Jiangsu Agri-animal Husbandry Vocational College, Taizhou, China
*Ph. D. Cheng-xia ZHANG, associate professor, engaged in garden ornamental and plants research.
*Corresponding Author: Cheng-xia ZHANG, Ph. D. Cheng-xia ZHANG, associate professor, engaged in garden ornamental and medicinal plants research.

Abstract: In order to studied the effect of salt stress onantioxidant enzyme system and photosynthetic pigments in the leaves of Bush Cinquefoil (Potentilla fruticosa L.),and the correlation between the important physiological characteristics of salt tolerance. Bush Cinquefoil (Potentilla fruticosa L.) cutting seedlings was selected as the material, through watering NaCl and Na2SO4 solution of different concentration. The results showed that: with the constant enhancement of salt stress, SOD activity, chlorophyll content of Potentilla fruticosa L. leaves decreased; POD activity showed a rising trend; the carotenoid content decreased; the chlorophyll content of leaves was positive correlation with SOD, negatively correlated with POD, so SOD had certain protective effect on chlorophyll. Based on the analysis, Potentilla fruticosa L. has a certain tolerance to salt, suitable for planting in areas with low degree of salinization.
Keywords: salt stress; Potentilla fruticosa L.; antioxidant enzyme system; photosynthetic pigments

1. INTRODUCTION
Bush Cinquefoil (Potentilla fruticosa L.) also known as Prunus humilis, is a deciduous shrub of Potentilla of Rosaceae. Dense branches and leaves, yellow flowers, shaped like plum blossoms, flowering from June to July, suitable for garden ornamental shrubs or hedgerows [1]. Leaves and fruits contain tannin, which can be used to extract tannin extract. Tender leaves can be drunk on behalf of tea leaves. Flowers and leaves are used as medicines and have the effects of invigorating spleen, eliminating dampness, clearing summer heat, and regulating menstruation [2]. Bush Cinquefoil (Potentilla fruticosa L.), resistant to low temperatures of - 50 ℃ and likes moist soil with good drainage. it is resistant to drought and barren. Bush Cinquefoil is an excellent greenery and medicinal plant, which has broad application prospect. However, the research and promotion of Bush Cinquefoil is still in its primary stage, mainly focusing on medicinal and reproductive aspects, while the research on salt resistance of Bush Cinquefoil is relatively few, and mainly under NaCl stress. Chloride and sulfate are the main salt damage components in the saline-alkali land in the arid region of northern China, which severely restricts the economic development in the arid region of northern China [3]. In order to expand the application of Bush Cinquefoil in saline-alkali regions in north China, especially in arid regions in north China, this project studied the effects of different concentrations of NaCl and Na2SO4 solution treatment on antioxidant enzyme system and chlorophyll content of Bush Cinquefoil (Potentilla fruticosa L.) seedlings, in order to provide reference for improving the salt tolerance of Bush Cinquefoil and its application scope in north China.
2. MATERIALS AND METHODS
2.1. Materials
The seedlings tested were 2 - year - old Bush Cinquefoil cuttage seedlings. seedlings with the same growth and strong plants were selected from the nursery of Hebei agricultural university to be planted in a ceramic basin with a diameter of 21 cm and a depth of 25 cm. the cultivation medium was mainly ordinary garden soil in. During the period of normal management, experiment. was carried out when the young plant of Bush Cinquefoil was about 50 cm tall. 10 plants in each group and 30 plants in each treatment set up 3 repeated. 0.2 %, 0.4 %, 0.6 %, 0.8 % and 1.0 % NaCl and Na2SO4 solutions were respectively applied into the basin in 1l three times to ensure sufficient salt absorption, and distilled water was used as the control (CK).

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Effects of Salt Stress on the Enzyme Activity and Chlorophyll Content of Bush Cinquefoil (Potentilla fruticosa L.)

The test materials of Bush Cinquefoil were planted in a ceramic flowerpot with a diameter of 21 cm and a depth of 25 cm. the cultivation medium was mainly., a common garden soil. Every 10 pots are one group, and every 30 pots are treated, i.e. 3 repeated. Pour clear water into flowerpots as control

(CK), and place trays at the bottom of flowerpots to prevent salt loss from.

2.2. Test Methods and Determination Methods

After 7 and 13 days of NaCl and Na2SO4 stress, 20 mature leaves were randomly taken from plants at the same stress level between 7: 00 and 8: 00 in the morning to measure the physiological indexes of salt tolerance. The determination of chlorophyll content is based on the method of the Bo chin[4], the determination of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity is based on azoblue tetrazole photochemical reduction method[3], and the determination of peroxidase (POD) activity is based on guaiacol method [5]

The test data were analyzed by SPSS 19.0 statistical software for variance and correlation between

indicators and excel 2007 was used to tabulate.

3. RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

3.1. Effect of Salt Stress on Antioxidant Enzyme System of Bush Cinquefoil

As can be seen from table 1, under salt stress, SOD activity in leaves of Bush Cinquefoil decreased with the increase of salt concentration in. Except for NaCl stress of 0.2 % salt concentration for 7 days, SOD activity had no significant difference with CK, and SOD activity of other treatment levels had significant difference with CK. After 13 days of stress, all treatments with different concentrations of NaCl reached significantly different levels of. After 7 days and 13 days of Na2SO4 stress, the treatment with different concentrations reached significant difference level with CK, and after 13 days of stress, there was significant difference between the treatment concentrations of. In comparison, SOD activity under NaCl stress was lower than that under Na2SO4 stress, which indicated that SOD activity in leaves of Bush Cinquefoil was more sensitive to Na2SO4 stress in.

With the increase of NaCl and Na2SO4 stress levels, pod activity in leaves of Bush Cinquefoil showed an overall upward trend, and the values were higher than CK. After 7 days of stress, POD activity and CK in leaves treated with 0.8 % and 1.0 % NaCl reached significantly different levels of. After 13 days of stress, all treatments with different NaCl concentrations reached significantly different levels of. from CK except for Na2SO4 stress of 0.2 % salt concentration for 7 days, SOD activity had no significant difference with CK, and SOD activity at other treatment levels had significant difference with CK. After 13 days of Na2SO4 stress, there were significant differences between different treatments.

In comparison, under the same treatment time and salt concentration stress, the SOD activity and pod activity of NaCl treatment were lower than that of Na2SO4 treatment, which indicated that the effect of NaCl stress on antioxidant enzyme system of Bush Cinquefoil was stronger than that of Na2SO4 stress on.

Table1. The effect of salt stress on SOD enzyme activities、POD enzyme activities of Potentilla fruticosa L.

leaves

%

Days of treatment (d)

Salt

Concentration

7d

NaCl

Na2SO4

13d

7d

13d

CK

98.000c

85.600f

102.289d

90.510f

0.20

98.005c

77.600e

98.333c

79.400e

SOD activity (enzyme

0.40

activity unit·g-1FW)

0.60

93.543b 96.067c

49.800d 29.067c

97.815c 96.954c

54.800d 40.867c

0.80

58.694a

27.200b

82.823b

32.600b

1.00

58.886a

17.133a

69.354a

26.867a

CK

14.318a

17.955a

16.126a

18.822a

0.20

17.647ab

28.313b

17.833ab

30.333b

POD activity

0.40

18.833bc

52.133c

19.311b

53.833c

(A470·min-1·g-1FW)

0.60

15.815ab

49.100c

20.631b

56.667d

0.80

21.968c

60.256d

27.462c

62.000e

1.00

28.126d

58.293d

30.314c

71.833f

Note:Analysis of variance is at the 0.05 level. a, b, c…… is significant difference between different salt concentrations(in line).It is same in thereinafter.

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Effects of Salt Stress on the Enzyme Activity and Chlorophyll Content of Bush Cinquefoil (Potentilla fruticosa L.)

3.2. Effect of Salt Stress on Photosynthetic Pigment Content in Leaves of Bush Cinquefoil

As shown in table 2, with the increase of salt concentration, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll content in leaves of Bush Cinquefoil decreased significantly by. after different salt stress treatments. However, under the same stress intensity, the content of chlorophyll treated with NaCl was higher than that treated with Na2SO4, which indicated that chlorophyll synthesis in leaves of Bush Cinquefoil was more destroyed under Na2SO4 stress, and its light energy capture, transmission and conversion were all affected to a greater extent by.

Under salt stress, the carotenoid content of all salt treatments reached significant difference level, but the change was not significant, floating. above and below CK Under the same stress time and concentration, the content of carotenoids under NaCl stress was lower than that under the reduced Na2SO4 stress, which indicated that the content of carotenoids in leaves of Bush Cinquefoil was more sensitive to NaCl stress in.

The chlorophyll a/b value in leaves of Bush Cinquefoil increased first and then decreased with the increase of NaCl concentration and reached the maximum value of. When the salt concentration was 0.4 % (after 7 days of stress) and 0.6 % (after 13 days of stress) Under Na2SO4 stress, chlorophyll a/b value showed a decreasing trend first and then increasing trend in. The ratio of total chlorophyll to carotenoids showed a downward trend with the increase of salt concentration, which indicated that the effects of NaCl and Na2SO4 stress on the total chlorophyll content were higher than those on the carotenoid content in.

Table2. Effect of salt stress on photosynthetic pigments content of Potentilla fruticosa L. leaves

(μg·g-1) Chla content
(μg·g-1) Chlb content
(μg·g-1) Chl(a+b) content
(μg·g-1) Car content
Chl a/b

% Salt Concentration CK 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 CK 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 CK 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 CK 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 CK 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00

7d 22.908f 20.877e 20.080d 18.151c 14.394b 10.650a 4.595f 4.174e 3.603d 3.315c 2.779b 2.329a 27.503f 25.051e 23.683d 21.466c 17.173b 12.979a 5.863f 4.836b 5.216d 4.874c 4.037a 5.267e 4.985c 5.002c 5.573a 5.475ab 5.180bc 4.573d

(d) days of treatment

NaCl

Na2SO4

13d

7d

18.636e

21.575e

19.841f

15.841d

15.266c

15.492d

16.217d

13.308c

12.911b

10.877b

7.201a

9.820a

4.553e

4.795f

3.895d

3.770e

2.819c

3.589d

2.620b

3.012c

2.476b

1.958b

2.047a

1.450a

23.189e

26.370f

23.736f

19.612e

18.085c

19.082d

18.837d

16.321c

15.387b

12.836b

9.248a

11.270a

6.417f

5.863a

5.105e

6.354b

4.638d

6.542d

4.258a

6.629e

4.378b

6.777f

4.572c

6.472c

4.093e

4.499c

5.094d

4.202c

5.415b

4.317c

6.190a

4.418c

5.214c

5.555b

3.518f

6.772a

13d 18.636f 15.447e 12.231d 10.741c 10.577b 6.526a 4.919f 4.342e 3.138d 2.335c 1.942b 0.830a 23.555f 19.789e 15.369d 13.076c 12.519b 7.356a 6.417e 6.769f 4.420a 5.034b 5.881c 6.106d 3.789d 3.558e 3.898d 4.600c 5.446b 7.863a

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Effects of Salt Stress on the Enzyme Activity and Chlorophyll Content of Bush Cinquefoil (Potentilla fruticosa L.)

CK

0.20

Chl(a+b) /Car

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

4.691b 5.180a 4.540bc 4.404cd 4.254d 2.464e

3.614d 4.650a 3.899c 4.424b 3.515d 2.023e

4.498a 3.087b 2.917c 2.462d 1.894e 1.741f

3.671a 2.923b 3.053b 2.223c 2.832b 1.205d

3.3. Correlation Analysis of Chlorophyll Content with Superoxide Dismutase and Peroxidase Activities in Leaves under Salt Stress

As shown in table 3, after 7 days of NaCl stress, SOD was significantly negatively correlated with pod, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and chlorophyll total were significantly positively correlated with SOD, chlorophyll b was significantly negatively correlated with pod, and chlorophyll a, chlorophyll total were significantly negatively correlated with pod. After 13 days of NaCl stress, SOD activity and pod activity reached a very significant negative correlation with; Chlorophyll a and total chlorophyll were significantly and positively correlated with SOD, while chlorophyll b was significantly and positively correlated with SOD in. The correlation between pod and chlorophyll a was not significant, but extremely significant negative correlation with chlorophyll b, and significantly negative correlation with total chlorophyll.

Sod and pod reached extremely significant negative correlation. in all stages of Na2SO4 stress After 7 days of Na2SO4 stress, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll content were significantly positively correlated with SOD and negatively correlated with pod in; Chlorophyll b was positively correlated with SOD and negatively correlated with pod in. After 13 days of Na2SO4 stress, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll and SOD were significantly and positively correlated with each other in; Chlorophyll a was negatively correlated with pod, while chlorophyll b and chlorophyll total were negatively correlated with pod in.

Table1. The coefficient of correlation of morphological and physiological characters of Potentilla fruticosa L. leaves under salt stress

NaCl

days of treatment /d
7
13

7 Na2SO4
13

X1

X2

X3

X4

X5

X1

1

X2

-0.880* 1

X3

0.916*

-0.924** 1

X4

0.862*

-0.861* 0.969** 1

X5

0.911*

-0.918** 0.999** 0.978** 1

X1

1

X2

-0.941** 1

X3

0.838*

-0.785

1

X4

0.976** -0.976** 0.830*

1

X5

0.884*

-0.839* 0.995** 0.881*

1

X1

1

X2

-0.974** 1

X3

0.825*

-0.895* 1

X4

0.924** -0.973** 0.973** 1

X5

0.852*

-0.917* 0.999** 0.984** 1

X1

1

X2

-0.986** 1

X3

0.964** -0.981* 1

X4

0.982** -0.976** 0.985** 1

X5

0.971** -0.982** 0.999** 0.992** 1

** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed)

* Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed)

Note: X1 SOD, X2 POD, X3 Chla, X4 Chlb, X5 Chl(a+b)

4. DISCUSSION

4.1. Effect of Salt Stress on Enzyme Activity

Under adverse circumstances, plants need to rely on the balance of active oxygen metabolism to maintain their normal growth and development of. Salt stress can induce plants to produce a large

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Effects of Salt Stress on the Enzyme Activity and Chlorophyll Content of Bush Cinquefoil (Potentilla fruticosa L.)

amount of reactive oxygen species, and excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species will produce oxygen stress on seedlings [6]. Antioxidant enzymes can remove excess active oxygen in plants and reduce the damage of salt stress to seedlings [7,8]. In this experiment, with the increase of salt stress intensity, SOD and pod activities showed a downward trend, and SOD activities were significantly different between different treatment concentrations after 7 days of NaCl stress, 7 days of Na2SO4 stress, and 13 days of stress. pod activities were significantly different between different treatments after 13 days of salt stress. Compared with NaCl, the changes of SOD and pod activities under Na2SO4 stress were smaller than those under NaCl stress, which indicated that the antioxidant enzyme system of Bush Cinquefoil (Potentilla fruticosa L.) was more sensitive to NaCl stress in.
4.2. Effects of Salt Stress on Photosynthetic Pigments
Pigment is an important substance in plant photosynthesis. its content directly affects the intensity of photosynthesis and is an important indicator of plant salt tolerance. In this study, with the increase of salt concentration, a large amount of Na+ and Cl- accumulated in Bush Cinquefoil, resulting in a significant decrease in chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and chlorophyll content in. This indicates that the accumulation of Na+ and Cl- in the body of Bush Cinquefoil destroys the ion balance in the cell, leading to the relaxation of protein binding between chlorophyll and thylakoid membrane [7] and the enhancement of chlorophyllase activity [8], accelerating the decomposition of. by chlorophyll. When plants grow in saline environment, the contents of Na+ and Cl- accumulate in their bodies, which leads to a decline in photosynthesis. this has been confirmed in a large number of literatures. however, for different plants, there is a certain difference in the degree of decline in the dominant ion and photosynthetic rate [9]. In this study, under the same stress intensity, the decrease of chlorophyll content under NaCl stress was significantly smaller than that under Na2SO4, which indicated that chlorophyll in leaves of Prunus humilis was more sensitive to Na2SO4 stress, Na+ concentration might be the main ion affecting photosynthesis of Prunus humilis, and. needs to be further verified.
Carotenoids can not only absorb and transmit light energy, but also quench active oxygen to protect [10]. for photosynthesis. Carotenoids in leaves of Bush Cinquefoil did not change much under salt stress, floating up and down in CK. the results were consistent with those of Chen shigang[11]research of salt stress on carotene species of poplar tree. The carotenoid content was higher than CK after 7 days of Na2SO4 stress and reached the maximum value at 0.2 % salt concentration after 13 days of stress, and higher than CK. other salt treatment values were lower than CK, suggesting that carotenoids played a protective role under short-term (7 days) of Na2SO4 and low-salt stress, but under long-term (13days) and high-salt stress, the carotenoid decomposition rate accelerated or synthesis was hindered by. In addition, under the same stress time and concentration, the content of carotenoids under NaCl stress is lower than that under Na2SO4 stress, which shows that carotenoids are more sensitive to NaCl stress. however, under the medium and low salt stress in this study, Na2SO4 stress is more harmful to chlorophyll production. it can be seen that carotenoids have certain protective effect on chlorophyll, but they do not play a key role in.
Under salt stress, the carotenoid content of all salt treatments reached significant difference level, but the change was not significant, floating. above and below CK Under the same stress time and concentration, the content of carotenoids under NaCl stress was lower than that under the reduced Na2SO4 stress, which indicated that the content of carotenoids in leaves of Bush Cinquefoil was more sensitive to NaCl stress in.
Chlorophyll a/b in leaves of Bush Cinquefoil increased first and then decreased with the increase of NaCl concentration, which indicated that chlorophyll a was higher than chlorophyll b under NaCl stress and the change trend of chlorophyll a/b in leaves of Cinnamomum camphora Seedlings was the same in studies such as Han haozhang[12]; However, the concentration of Na2SO4 showed an upward trend, which indicated that the degree of damage to chlorophyll b caused by Na2SO4 stress was greater.
Under NaCl and Na2SO4 stress, the total chlorophyll/carotenoid ratio decreased with the increase of salt concentration, which indicated that salt stress had a greater influence on the total chlorophyll content and had a smaller influence on the carotenoid content, which was consistent with the research conclusions of Rao and Han haozhang [12-13].

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Effects of Salt Stress on the Enzyme Activity and Chlorophyll Content of Bush Cinquefoil (Potentilla fruticosa L.)
4.3. Correlation Analysis
After 7 days of NaCl stress, SOD was negatively correlated with chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and chlorophyll content in; Under Na2SO4 stress for 7 days, SOD was significantly and positively correlated with chlorophyll a and chlorophyll total, and was significantly and positively correlated with chlorophyll b in; Under NaCl stress for 13 days, SOD was significantly and positively correlated with chlorophyll a and chlorophyll total, and was significantly and positively correlated with chlorophyll b in; Under Na2SO4 stress for 13 days, SOD was significantly and positively correlated with chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and total chlorophyll content, which indicated that SOD could provide long-term protective effect on chlorophyll under salt stress, especially with chlorophyll b, and the protective effect was strongest in.. However, under NaCl and Na2SO4 stress, pod was negatively correlated with chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll, which indicated that pod did not play a protective role on chlorophyll.
5. CONCLUSION
To sum up, under NaCl stress, SOD activity, pod activity and carotenoid content are lower than those under Na2SO4 stress, while chlorophyll content is higher than that under Na2SO4 stress, which indicates that NaCl stress has a greater influence on the oxidase system of Prunus humilis, and Na2SO4 stress has a greater influence on photosynthesis of Prunus humilis. in order to fully analyze the reasons, further research on. is needed in terms of the distribution of salt ions in the body and the influence of salt ions on the microstructure of plants. In addition, this project only analyzed the results of pot seedlings of Bush Cinquefoil under single salt stress, and whether the results of field multi-salt stress experiments can be consistent is still to be further studied in.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The authors are thankful to the Jiangsu Agri-animal Husbandry Vocational College for providing infrastructural facility and financial support (Grant NO: NSF201612).
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Citation: Hang LIU et al., "Effects of Salt Stress on the Enzyme Activity and Chlorophyll Content of Bush Cinquefoil (Potentilla fruticosa L.)", International Journal of Forestry and Horticulture (IJFH), vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 1-7, 2018. http://dx.doi.org/10.20431/2454-9487.0403001
Copyright: © 2018 Authors. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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ChlorophyllBush CinquefoilChlorophyll ContentNacl StressSod