Good governance of rice field fishery management

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Good governance of rice field fishery management

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Good governance of rice field fishery management

GOOD GOVERNANCE OF RICE FIELD FISHERY MANAGEMENT

GOOD GOVERNANCE OF RICE FIELD FISHERY MANAGEMENT
Author
Kim Miratori and Alan Brooks
Citation
This publication should be cited as: Miratori K and Brooks A. 2015. Good governance of rice field fishery management. Penang, Malaysia: WorldFish. Program Brief: 2015-19.
Acknowledgments
The author is grateful to our nongovernmental organization (NGO) and government partners, such as Aphiwat Neary Khmer Organization (ANKO), Trailblazer Cambodia Organization (TCO), Cambodia Organization for Women Support (COWS), Village Support Group (VSG), the Fisheries Administration Cantonment and local authorities who actively participate in implementing this approach at the grassroots level to improve the governance of their rice field fisheries systems in order to increase their community’s fish productivity. The Rice Field Fisheries Enhancement Project is funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID).
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CONTENTS

What are rice field fisheries?

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What is a community fish refuge (CFR) committee?

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How do we define good governance of a CFR committee?

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Building good governance and management capability of the CFR committee

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Benefits of good governance: Lessons learned

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CONTENTS

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WHAT ARE RICE FIELD FISHERIES?
Rice field fisheries refer to the capture of wild fish and other aquatic animals from flooded rice field agroecosystems and their supporting infrastructure, such as canals, channels, streams and other bodies of water. Central to maintaining fish productivity in rice fields is a designated conservation area known as a community fish refuge (CFR) that connects to rice fields to form an area known as the zone of influence. In 2012, 640 households living

within the zone of influence of 40 CFR target areas were surveyed to better understand fish catch and livelihoods in rice field fisheries. This livelihood survey found that the total average amount of fish caught per household per year was 200 kilograms (kg) and that 76 kg of this amount came from rice fields. Rice fields are important fishing grounds for both farmers and fishers and provide easy access to productive fisheries.

WHAT ARE RICE FIELD FISHERIES?

Photo Credit: Rice Field Fisheries Enhancement Project

Figure 1. Rice field fishery agroecosystem. Top left: Rice fields. Top right: Channel. Bottom: Community fish refuge.
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WHAT IS A COMMUNITY FISH REFUGE (CFR) COMMITTEE?

A CFR committee is made up of local volunteers, elected by the community of people who live in the CFR’s zone of influence. CFR committees are made up of 5 to 11 members, depending on the population and number of villages in their zone of influence. The main duties of these committees are to develop bylaws and

CFR management action plans; to define the CFR demarcation boundary; to hold regular meetings; and to manage fish pathways and other domains of rice field fisheries systems with support from local people, local authorities and the Fisheries Administration.

WHAT IS A COMMUNITY FISH REFUGE (CFR) COMMITTEE?

Photo Credit: Aphiwat Neary Khmer Organization (ANKO)

H.E. Nao Thouk, former general director of the Fisheries Administration, presents a gift to the best CFR committee. 5

HOW DO WE DEFINE GOOD GOVERNANCE OF A CFR COMMITTEE?

HOW DO WE DEFINE GOOD GOVERNANCE OF A CFR COMMITTEE?

Good governance of CFR committees enables effective decision-making and implementation of processes in order to meet CFR committee goals and objectives. Several practices can help to ensure good governance. These

include organizational management, planning and implementation, resource mobilization, linkages and networking, and representation and participation.

Characteristics of good governance Organizational management Planning and implementation Resource mobilization Linkages and networking
Representation and participation

Description of characteristics
CFR committee has regular meetings, bylaws, and defined roles and communication among executive members.
CFR committee has developed priority action plans, implemented the action plans, monitored the changes, and can solve their problems and conflicts.
CFR committee has collected funds from various sources, uses the funds in a transparent way, keeps records and participates in decision-making processes.
CFR committee has a good relationship with local authorities, the Fisheries Administration Cantonment, other traditional groups, NGOs working in their communities, and the private sector. Some action plans have been integrated into commune plans and have received support from various stakeholders. The committee has attended commune council meetings.
CFR committee has gender diversity among the committee members and has various representatives from different locations in the communities who participate in planning, decision-making and implementation of action plans.

Table 1. Characteristics of good governance.

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BUILDING GOOD GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT CAPABILITY OF THE CFR COMMITTEE

BUILDING GOOD GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT CAPABILITY OF THE CFR COMMITTEE

In order to achieve the key characteristics for good governance of rice field fisheries through the CFR committee, the Rice Field Fisheries Enhancement Project has identified four key developmental stages.
Stage 1: Partner capacity building
Partner NGOs responsible for developing solid practices with CFR committees have a solid understanding of management of rice field fisheries and the CFR. The capacity-building process is carried out in two stages: (i) formal training and (ii) field practice and coaching. The formal skills development process focuses on good facilitation skills and use of participatory analytical tools such as community visioning, problem tree analysis, stakeholder analysis and community-led action plan development (Table 2). Following training, partner staff practice their learning in selected villages, accompanied and coached by trainers.

Stage 2: Stakeholder awareness and empowerment
The success of CFRs maintaining productive rice field fisheries is dependent upon a wide range of users, interest groups and official institutions. Effective land and water use is an important factor. Therefore, this stage ensures awareness and aims for positive contributions from other village institutions (rice bank committees, village development committees, etc.), commune-level authorities and other NGOs working in the area. Two half-day consultation meetings should be arranged with (i) commune councilors and village chiefs within a region and (ii) village commune councilors, village chiefs, community representatives and other civil society organization key persons. During these meetings, ideas are shared, objectives are presented, success stories are told and visions for future actions are explored.

Visioning map A visioning map is a visual description of where the community currently is and where it wants to be when it achieves its vision for the future.

Problem tree analysis

Problem tree analysis is a facilitated discussion with community members where they are asked to identify the root causes that limit their ability to attain their vision.

Stakeholder analysis

Stakeholder analysis is the process of identifying existing community-based stakeholders and assessing their interest in participating in action plans and the resources they have to contribute to them.

Action plan

An action plan is a roadmap that helps a community to achieve its vision. It helps communities and CFR committees define the resources, including stakeholders and funding, they need to secure in order to implement action plans.

Table 2. Definitions of participatory action tools.

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BUILDING GOOD GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT CAPABILITY OF THE CFR COMMITTEE

Stage 3: CFR committee capacity development
Other committee members and key stakeholders, including local NGO staff, are included in two half-day capacity-development sessions. In this way, misunderstandings are minimized, collaboration of resource user groups is made easier, and overall community-level land and water management is better integrated.
The workshops involved five steps that aimed at assisting the CFR committee members to develop, implement and monitor a 6-month action plan to improve their rice field fisheries ecosystem.
Step 1: Introduce the CFR and rice field fisheries system concepts. • Present photos and describe the three
domains of rice field fisheries systems (CFR or conservation lake, channel, and rice field).
Step 2: Build a realistic vision. • Ask participants to reflect on both positive
and negative characteristics of rice field fisheries systems and on their vision for rice field fisheries domains over the next 3 years. • Using a visioning map, develop a common vision for the whole community for each of the three domains of rice field fisheries systems. • Finalize the vision map and present it back to the meeting for approval and agreement.
Step 3: Facilitate problem tree analysis. • Identify the root causes preventing

communities from achieving their vision. • Define the possible solutions as action plans
to remove those root causes.
Step 4: Conduct a stakeholder analysis. • Identify existing stakeholders working in the
village. • Assess the interests and resources of those
that can support the implementation of priority action plans (see Step 5). For example, some rice bank committees and pagoda committees have resources such as funds, paddy rice and labor.
Step 5: Create and prioritize an action plan for the next 6-month implementation period. • Based on a visioning map and using the
action plan template as a monitoring tool (see Figure 4), create a roadmap to help the community achieve their vision. • Define resources (people, money, materials and networks) to support the implementation of the activities in the action plan.
Stage 4: Follow-up, review and strengthening
The Rice Field Fisheries Enhancement Project has developed four steps that offer the best chance for a sustainable, well-connected and motivated committee with opportunities for continued future resourcing.
Step 1: Organize a series of follow-up visits over a period of 6 months to support committees with their action plans, provide coaching,

Photo Credit: Rice Field Fisheries Enhancement Project

Figure 2.

Top left: Introducing the three domains of rice field fisheries. Top right: Community visioning map. Bottom left: Facilitating problem tree analysis. Bottom right: Defining solutions.
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and build important networks with other institutions within the village and commune.
Step 2: Hold a stakeholder workshop. Activities at the workshop should include (i) review of and reflection on key successes and challenges; (ii) roleplays by skilled facilitators that enact the characteristics of good governance and management; (iii) participatory assessment that describes the current status of each of the five characteristics of good governance; (iv) a field visit; and (v) drafting of the next 6-month plan.
Step 3: Followup on the second 6-month action plan. During this step, more emphasis is placed

on improving governance and identifying opportunities for integrating elements of the plan into the the commune investment plan or other fundraising sources. Ideally, there are two or three visits with each CFR committee over a 6-month period.
Step 4: Conduct a second stakeholder workshop. This workshop is similar to the stakeholder workshop described in Step 2. However, since external support of the process will be ending, there is an additional focus on identifying opportunities for sustainability of the CFR committee and ongoing support from others stakeholders such as the commune council.

BUILDING GOOD GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT CAPABILITY OF THE CFR COMMITTEE

--Student scholarship --Animal-raising training

Stakeholder Analysis Local authority

--Animal distribution --Saving group
--Rice bank around 6 tons

World Vision Neary Khmer

Angkor Children Hospital
--Fundraising --Destitute people

Pagoda --Human resource development

--USD 1500 grants made available for

Kroursar Yeung

loans --Rice bank around 6 tons

Santey Community

School Health center

--School materials --Build school

Samrech Soben Komar
Army Engineering Unit

Police Life of Cambodia

--8 micro finance institutions --Provide loans
--Compost-making groups --Provide rice seeds and chicken

Micro finance Institution Food and GREAT Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
World Food Program

Reproductive and Child Health Alliance (RACHA)

District Agricultural Office Veterinarian

Trailblazer Cambodia Organization (TCO)_ WorldFish

Village Development Association

Red Cross Fisheries Administration

--Harvesting fish

--Crime intervention

--Build community housing

--Law dissemination

--Repair dam

--Provide fish stocks

--Fund raising from village ceremony

Figure 3. Example of a stakeholder analysis.

Action plan

How to do

Responsible person

Change water flow

-- Understand possibility of expanding water canal

direction to avoid flood -- Meet to discuss and plan for canal expansion

(level 2->3)

-- Raise funds to implement plan

Build dam to store

-- Meet to raise awareness on the dam reparation

water to improve

-- Harvest fish from the community pond as a fundraiser to implement

aquatic resources

the activity

(level 4->4)

-- Contact contractor to build dam

-- Repair dam, follow up and monitor

Harvest 5-6 tons of rice -- Hold technical training

twice a year

-- Build dam to store water for dry season rice cultivation

(level 3->3)

-- Improve knowledge in choosing rice seeds and fertilizers

-- Integrate this action plan into commune investment plan

-- Monitor the implementation

Maintain CFR well and -- Build extra 228 - meter fence to protect the CFR

increase fish

-- Plant 100 trees around the pond

(level 3->4)

-- Plant vegetables around the pond (winter melon, chili, eggplant, etc.

-- Do fundraising (village ceremony, household contribution)

Prevent illegal fishing -- Request permission to disseminate fisheries law on commune level

and pesticide activities -- Meet to disseminate fisheries law

and increase rice

-- Issue recognition paper of the community pond to other nearby

field fish refuge and

villages

concrete rings

-- Improve patrol and cooperation between villagers and authority

(level 3->4)

-- Request to have organic pesticide technician to train and provide

information

-- Village Development Org. -- Local authority
-- Local authority -- Doeun Norn -- Khem Soeurn -- Villagers -- Water user committee -- Village Development Org. -- Local authority -- Water user committee
-- Doeun Norn -- Tak Khon -- Dith Vy
-- Ong Chhan -- Tak Khon -- Doeun Norn -- Fisheries Administration -- Local authority -- Community

Timeframe

How to

monitor

May 2014 to November

2014

May 2014 to November 2014

Started October 2014

March 2014 to September 2014
to July 2015

Figure 4. Example of a 6-month action plan.
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BUILDING GOOD GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT CAPABILITY OF THE CFR COMMITTEE

Characteristics of governance of CFR committee

Cultivating (1 score)

Growing (2 scores)

Mature (3 scores)

Organizational management

• No regular meetings • Irregular meetings (less

• Rules and regulations than 4 times per year)

were decided by a • Rules and regulations

few members of CFR

were decided by

committee

some members of

• No regular, verbal

CFR committee

communication to • Irregular verbal

members

communication to

• Most members

members

have unclear idea of • Some members have

the role of the CFR

unclear idea of the role

committee

of the CFR committee

• Regular meetings (more than 4 times per year)
• Governance procedures followed with decisions made democratically with good communication to the community
• Members have a clear idea of the role of the CFR committee

Planning and implementing

• Activities not planned and implemented
• Need total support from NGOs

• Activities planned and implemented by few committee members
• Some support from NGOs

• Activities planned and implemented by all committee members
• Little support from NGOs

Resource mobilization

• No fundraising mechanism
• No bookkeeping system

• Regular fundraising both internally and externally
• Appropriate book keeping system but no circulation to other members

• Regular fundraising both internally and externally
• Appropriate book keeping system with members being kept updated and informed

Linkages and networking

• CFR committee officially recognized
• No attendance at coordination meetings
• Plan not integrated in commune investment plan

• CFR committee

• CFR committee

officially recognized

officially recognized

• Coordination

• Coordination meetings

meetings regularly

regularly attended

attended

• Plan integrated into

• Plan integrated into

commune investment

commune investment plan

plan

• Receive extra support

from NGOs, private

sector and commune

councils

Representation and participation

• Less participation by women in decisionmaking
• Less representatives from different wealth groups in decision making

• Some women's participation in decision-making
• Women are regularly informed
• More representation from various wealth groups in the community

• Most women on the committee participate in decision-making
• Women members are kept well-informed
• Most wealth group representatives participate in decision making

Table 3. Example of a participatory assessment tool.

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GovernanceCfr CommitteeCfrRice Field FisheriesSupport