Grade 1 STEM Design Challenge CORRESPONDING DESIGN LOOP STAGE

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Grade 1 STEM Design Challenge CORRESPONDING DESIGN LOOP STAGE

Transcript Of Grade 1 STEM Design Challenge CORRESPONDING DESIGN LOOP STAGE

Grade 1 STEM Design Challenge CORRESPONDING DESIGN LOOP STAGE IN RED
Unit 6: Earth Materials Topic: Changing Spoils into Soil Subject/ Grade level: STEM/ Grade 1
Materials: Suggested for teams of 2-3 students unless indicated otherwise  BrainPop Jr. movie on soil (if not already viewed): http://www.brainpopjr.com/science/land/soil/  Surgical masks  Worm Poop video and song about decomposition: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Xs5cdlT9Ec  Rubber gloves  Toothpicks  Spoons  Hand lenses  Digging Up All Kinds of Soil handout  21st Century Skills rubric for grading the project  Suggested items for making soil:
o Water o Bugs o Worms o Seeds o Dead leaves o Sand o Small twigs o Flower petals o Rocks o 1 Small cup or jar per student team o 10 seeds per group o Bag made of heavy material o Mortar and pestle, optional  Digging Up All Kinds of Soil handout  Testing Soil handout by www.soil-net.com  What’s In Soil handout by www.soil-net.com  Teacher Note handout by www.soil-net.com  Soil Math Connection handout  Stick and Elastic book handout by makingbooks.com  Index Card Accordion book handout by makingbooks.com Helpful links:  Soil Recipe: https://ag.tennessee.edu/watersheds/Documents/GI-Soils-Formation.pdf  4 videos on soil: o https://youtu.be/whMvmDk7sRk o https://youtu.be/EFnnypd-5WU o https://youtu.be/F7isXJ2epyc o https://youtu.be/P3I5WpgwQfY  Soil School: http://www.soil-net.com/primary/  Baseball field soil: http://www.ultimate-baseball-field-renovation-guide.com/dirt-mix.html

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Grade 1 STEM Design Challenge CORRESPONDING DESIGN LOOP STAGE IN RED

TEKS Science *SCI 1.7A Observe, compare, describe, and sort components of soil by size, texture, and color.
SCI 1.3A Identify and explain a problem such as finding a home for a classroom pet and propose a solution in his/her own words.
Math Math 1.1A Apply mathematics to problems arising in everyday life, society, and the workplace.
ⓇMath 1.5D Represent word problems involving addition and subtraction of whole numbers up to 20 using concrete and pictorial models and number sentences.
ELPS C1A Use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English. C3E Share information in cooperative learning interactions.
CCRS Science 1E1A Use several modes of expression to describe or characterize natural patterns and phenomena. These modes of expression include narrative, numerical, graphical, pictorial, symbolic, and kinesthetic. 5D1A Understand that scientists categorize things according to similarities and differences.
Math 4A1A Determine appropriate units of measurement needed for the object being measured in a given situation. 1B1A Add, subtract, multiply, and divide real numbers accurately, including irrational numbers, numbers with exponents, and absolute value.
Cross-Disciplinary 1A1B Conduct investigations and observations. 1C1C Apply previously learned knowledge to new situations.

Lesson objective(s): After deconstructing what soil is composed of, students will design optimal soil “recipes” given constraints.

Differentiation strategies to meet diverse learner needs:  For students that need extra support to understand the concept of decomposition and its role in soil production,
show the Magic School Bus Meets the Rot Squad at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nujtNjNAPHU  For auditory learners, play the video for the “Worm Poop” song. Put words on chart paper and talk about how
worms help keep soil healthy.  Advanced: Have students research what a soil engineer does and share out this information with the rest of the
class. Information on geotechnical engineers link: http://academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Geotechnical_engineering  An alternative approach to completing the formative assessment in the Test and Evaluate stage is provided.  To assist teams in the Redesign stage, an internet link about baseball field soil is provided.

IDENTIFY NEED Introduce the design challenge by having students watch the BrainPop Jr. video on soil (if not already viewed):

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Grade 1 STEM Design Challenge CORRESPONDING DESIGN LOOP STAGE IN RED

http://www.brainpopjr.com/science/land/soil/
At its conclusion, tell students: “We dig in it, build with it, and depend on it for the nutrients and water that plants and people need to survive. Life on Earth depends on soil. It can take hundreds of years to create an inch of this precious resource, yet we often take it for granted.”
“In many places of the world, the soil lacks important ingredients that plants need to grow. This makes it very hard for people who live in these regions of our world to grow the food people need to eat. We know that that humans and animals need plants to survive and that plants need soil.” (Teacher Note: For the next part, the teacher should get a sample of “clayey” soil from the school yard. DO NOT SELECT A SOIL SAMPLE THAT IS FERTILE in which plants can grow. )
Tell the students, “This is soil from the school yard. Plants cannot grow in this soil. Your task is to learn more about this soil and find out what is wrong with it. To do this, you and your team will have to study and learn more about soil. Then as a team, you will design a ‘recipe’ for a healthy soil. Our goal is to grow healthy plants and flowers in this spot in the schoolyard. Good luck!”
Formative Assessment: Ask students, “What is the design problem we are trying to solve?” have them talk and discuss in teams or tables and then share with the class what their team thinks the design challenge is going to be.

RESEARCH THE PROBLEM Research Activity One: 1. Set out samples of soils from different areas – have students bring in samples from home for a large variety. 2. Allow student teams to freely explore the samples with all of their senses, except taste. 3. Allow student to carefully add water to the soils and then explore the mud. 4. Have the students work in groups of 2-3 as "soil surgeons" to dissect their soil samples and identify what they are
composed of. 5. Have the teams wear surgical masks and rubber gloves, and then use toothpicks and plastic spoons to tease out
the soil components. 6. As a class, make a list of what students find -- bugs, dead things, roots, sandy stuff, etc., on an ongoing chart
titled, "What Is Soil Made of?"

Formative Assessment: Give students the “Digging Up All Kinds of Soil” handout to scaffold their learning. Have students first analyze their own sample, and then choose 2 other students to share their information and complete the bottom of the handout.

Research Activity Two: 1. After examining what soils seem to be made of, students will create "mud shakes" with their home soil sample
to examine soil components as they settle out in layers. Making a mud shake is a fun way to explore soil texture. 2. Have the students fill a clear container about two-thirds full of water, then add enough soil to nearly fill the jar.
(You can also add a pinch of alum, found at pharmacies, to help the soil components separate more markedly.) 3. Have students shake the jar vigorously and then observe over the next couple of days as the particles begin to settle into layers.

(Teacher Note: The large particles (gravel and sand) will settle at the bottom, the next layer on top of that will be

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silt, and the clay may stay suspended and cloud the water for a long time. Organic matter will float on or just below the water surface.) Formative Assessment: Have students answer the following questions in oral or written form while in their teams: 1. How many students’ shakes contained 1 layer, 2 layers, 3 layers etc.? (The teacher can discuss the average
amount of layers.) 2. Name some things you found in your layers. (Leaves, silt, sand, clay, etc.) 3. What did you have the most of in your soil sample and where did you find it? (Answers will vary.) 4. What can we say about soil in the location where you took your sample from? (Answers will vary.) Differentiation: For auditory learners, introduce the video and sing along, “Worm Poop,” by Birdsong http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Xs5cdlT9Ec
"WORM POOP SONG" by Birdsong and the Eco-Wonders Intro: Poop, Poop, Poop, Poop, Poop, Poop, Poop, Poop (x2) Poop!
Verse 1: I live in the ground. I hardly make a sound. I like to eat dirt as I wiggle through the earth. Making tunnels as I go, I move really slowly. But my muscles are strong and they help me get along. I wiggle to the left. I wiggle to the right. I eat and poop all day and night.
CHORUS: This is my life as a worm. And you know wherever I squirm, I eat dead things, help them decompose. My poop is fertilizer that helps the plants grow. I dig what I do in my life as a worm.
Poop, Poop, Poop, Poop, Poop, Poop, Poop, Poop. (x1 or x2) Poop!
Verse 2: My mouth is tough enough to grab leaves and dead stuff. I drag them around, making spaces in the ground. So the air can get in and the water can flow. Helps the roots of the plants to breathe and grow.
I wiggle to the left. I wiggle to the right. I eat and poop all day and night.
to CHORUS
Formative Assessment: Have teams answer the following questions after singing the song by orally discussing, drawing, or writing the answers to the following questions. 1. Where do worms live? 2. Name one thing that a worm does all day. 3. How do worms help soil? (Aerate the soil- digging tunnels; poop is fertilizer; helps things decompose, etc.)

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Grade 1 STEM Design Challenge CORRESPONDING DESIGN LOOP STAGE IN RED

Research Activity Three: [Teacher Note: For the “Testing Soil” activity, students will describe the general composition of the schoolyard soil sample. Explain that this test isn't exact, but scientists often use it to get a sense of a soil's composition because it's so easy to implement (all you need is a little water).]

1. Together, the class should evaluate the schoolyard soil with the teacher. Students should complete the top portion of the Testing Soil handout prior to conducting the following steps with the teacher. (The teacher can find the answers to fill in with the students on the Teacher Note handout.)
2. Using the school yard soil, have students add water to a small clump of soil until it makes a moist ball. 3. Then students will gently roll the ball of soil between their palms. 4. If the soil is sticky, it is either silty or clayey soil. 5. If the sticky ball of soil does not break easily, the sample contains a high proportion of clay (thus sticks together
well) and can be described as a clayey soil. 6. If the sticky ball crumbles, the sample has high silt content and can be called a silty soil. 7. If the soil is not sticky, the soil is either a loamy or sandy soil. 8. If the non-sticky ball of soil crumbles very easily, you have a sandy soil. 9. If the non-sticky ball of soil CAN form a ball, students have loam: a soil with a good balance of sand, silt, and clay.
Working in small groups, ask students to determine the composition of each sample.

Formative Assessment: With teacher guidance, teams will read, ask questions, and fill in the green circles together to categorize soil types in the top portion of the “Testing Soil” handout (the teacher MUST read the Teacher Note handout beforehand). Teams will then conduct a soil test and complete the bottom portion of the handout with teacher guidance.

DEVELOP POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS Have students work in teams and use what they have learned about soils to create a "recipe" for a simulated garden soil in their design logs. They should begin by sharing amongst each other what they have observed in their soil samples from home. To add to this discussion and research, the teacher should share and discuss the What’s in Soil handout with students. (Teacher Note: The teacher may want to abridge this handout and make a poster of its key information.)

Next, the teacher should furnish recipe ingredients (water, bugs, seeds, sand, leaves, and so on) to students. [Teacher Note: Be sure students know that the missing elements of time and inorganic materials will prevent them from creating the 'real' thing (soil takes hundreds of years to form)]. Through this activity students will be prompted to become sharper observers, to appreciate the life soil harbors, and to value it as more than simply something to walk on.

By the end of this step, all teams should have “designed” a recipe to suggest what they think will be a healthy soil to help plants grow that could replace the schoolyard soil sample. Teams should draw a picture of their soil recipe and label each of the components they select.

Formative Assessment: Have teams orally discuss, draw, or write the answers to the following questions. 1. What is the design problem we are trying to solve? (Students should restate the design problem.) 2. After researching, do you think all soils are made of the same things? Why or why not? 3. Would you rather have more sand, more clay, or more silt in the soil you will make? Why? 4. How would we describe our school yard sample? (It is clayey soil.)

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Grade 1 STEM Design Challenge CORRESPONDING DESIGN LOOP STAGE IN RED

5. Why is it hard for plants to grow in our schoolyard soil? (Students can consult the What’s In Soil? handout info. you share. Water cannot drain in clay.)
6. What makes the soil you have designed in your soil recipe better than the schoolyard soil?
SELECT THE MOST PROMISING SOLUTION Teams should share out their soil recipe ideas with the class and explain their drawings to the class. To choose ONLY ONE soil recipe that the class thinks is the most likely to make plants grow, students should ask each team questions, using criteria and/or a rubric such like the one that follows.
Formative Assessment: Have teams create a rubric like the one depicted here to decide on the best soil recipe. The teacher should add more categories and/or have the students add the other criteria informed by their research and handouts.

Soil Rubric

Team: Group 1

YES

NO

Does the soil contain air?

Does the soil contain silt?

Does the soil contain animals?

CONSTRUCT A PROTOTYPE Once the class has decided upon which ONE soil recipe would be most likely to grow plants, the class will begin to make the recipe together.
Formative Assessment: Have teams orally discuss, draw, or write the answers to the following questions. 1. What materials will we need in order to make our soil recipe? 2. What tools will we need? 3. What item(s) included in our soil recipe will help hold nutrients in the soil? 4. What item(s) included in our soil recipe will provide drainage of excess water? 5. What item(s) included in our soil recipe will help dead material to decompose, or rot? 6. What can we do to test and decide if, in fact, our soil is good enough to make plants grow?

TEST AND EVALUATE PROTOTYPE With teacher assistance throughout, teams will do the following steps and answer the evaluation questions below either orally or in written form.

1. Place all materials in a small bag made of denim or other heavy material (or use mortar and pestle to grind

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Grade 1 STEM Design Challenge CORRESPONDING DESIGN LOOP STAGE IN RED

materials). 2. Pound the mixture with a hammer until the rocks are pulverized. 3. Remove from the bag, place in planting pot, and add water (the act of pouring the materials into the pot will add
air to the mixture). 4. Repeat this process until they have enough soil to fill a small cup or flower pot 3/4 full. 5. Plant 10 seeds in their soil and 10 more seeds in a pot containing the clayey soil. 6. Then observe and compare the growth. This will take a week or more. 7. Have the students note when the seeds begin coming up out of the ground. 8. Have them measure the seedlings as they grow. (See Math Connection handout) 9. They should also record how many of the ten seeds came up in each of the pots. 10. Relate the components of soil to the growth of plants in the soil in a class discussion. (Teacher Note: Points in “a”
through “d” should guide the discussion.) a. Water is necessary to carry nutrients into the roots and up the stem. It is also necessary for the plants to grow? b. Air is necessary to allow the roots to "breathe". Also, air spaces in the soil allow a place for water to enter the soil. c. Organic matter, plant and animal parts, help hold the water in the soil. They also provide nutrients. d. Rocks and minerals provide nutrients to the plants and structural support to the roots.
MATH CONNECTION Students in teams should be sure to complete the “Soil Math Connection” handout, to record what was in the soil and write a number sentence about the total number of ingredients in their soil. Students will also use measurement.
Formative Assessment: Teams should write up the following information about the final soil recipe in a short design report. The final design report should contain 1. A clear statement of the question they were trying to answer. (In this case, it was something like, "Will plants
grow better in the soil I made or in natural soil.) 2. A description of their materials and set up. 3. A record of the data they collected (when the plants came up, how many came up, how much they grew). The
“Soil Math Connection” handout can be used to help complete this section. 4. A conclusion that states whether their soil did allow healthy plants and flowers to grow.

(Teacher Note: The teacher can do this design log entry as a model with the entire class working to complete it. The most important thing is for teams to share and justify their thinking in their final report.)
Differentiation: Teams can alternatively complete this report orally, or the formative assessment can be reduced down to just part 4 (Have teams write only about the final results).
COMMUNICATE THEIR DESIGN An easy way teams can communicate their soil recipe is to make a class book. To make the book, the class together can plan out the different sections to create and student teams can be assigned a section to write.

Formative Assessment: The Stick and Elastic book handout and the Index Card Accordion book handout are provided as possible designs.

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Grade 1 STEM Design Challenge CORRESPONDING DESIGN LOOP STAGE IN RED
Teams can then share and read their book with other classes, during read-aloud throughout the year as a reread text, or take it home to share with their parents and siblings. . A class-made book allows students to express their ideas on soil freely and practice their communication skills, both written and oral.
REDESIGN As a class, have students talk about how they could redesign their soil recipe for a baseball field. The questions provided could help students to plan for the redesign of their soil recipe.
Formative Assessment: Have teams orally discuss, draw, or write the answers to these questions to help them plan for this new soil. REMEMBER: teams are not making this new soil. They are only planning for its design. 1. Would our garden soil be a good recipe for a baseball field in the schoolyard? Why or why not? 2. If we redesigned your soil recipe for a baseball field, what soil type(s) could stop players from slipping? 3. What type of soil(s) do you think could keep players’ uniforms relatively clean? 4. What type of soil(s) do you think will not hurt players if they fall in it? 5. Who else could we ask to get more information about what makes good soil for a baseball field?
Differentiation: To scaffold this exercise for teams that need extra help, or for those unfamiliar with the soil of baseball fields, the following link will help give students ideas: http://www.ultimate-baseball-field-renovation-guide.com/dirt-mix.html

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