Gross Energy Digestible Energy Metabolizable Energy

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Gross Energy Digestible Energy Metabolizable Energy

Transcript Of Gross Energy Digestible Energy Metabolizable Energy




 When given the concentrations of fat, protein, and carbohydrates, be able to calculate the energy (kcal) of a food using Atwater and modified Atwater factors.
 Know how to calculate resting energy requirements using both equations.  If provided a table with life stage factors, be able to apply them appropriately to estimate daily energy


 Calories o Amount of heat needed to raise 1 gram of water from 14.5°C to 15.5°C o A kilocalorie = 1000 calories o Food energy  Gross energy = the amount of heat liberated when food is burned in a bomb calorimeter  Digestible energy = gross energy minus the energy lost in feces  Metabolizable energy = digestible energy minus energy lost in urine and gastrointestinal (GI) gas  Net energy = metabolizable energy minus energy lost in the process of digestion

Gross Energy

Energy lost in feces

Digestible Energy

Energy lost in urine & GI gas

 Estimating metabolizable energy
o Atwater factors  4 kcal = 1 gram protein  4 kcal = 1 gram carbohydrate  9 kcal = 1 gram fat

Metabolizable Energy

Energy lost in heat from digestion of

o Modified Atwater factors  Used for estimating pet foods with lower bioavailability  3.5 kcal = 1 gram protein  3.5 kcal = 1 gram carbohydrate  8.5 kcal = 1 gram fat

Example: You have a diet that is 40% protein, 35% carbohydrate, and 25% fat on an as fed basis. How many calories are in 100 grams of this food?

40% of 100 grams = 40 grams x 4 kcal = 160 kcal from protein

35% of 100 grams = 35 grams x 4 kcal = 140 kcal from carbohydrates

25% of 100 grams = 25 grams x 9 kcal = 225 kcal from fat

(525 kcal per 100 grams of food)

 Respiratory Quotient (RQ) o As nutrients are oxidized for energy, they produce CO2 and consume O2 o Respiratory Quotient is a ratio of CO2 produced to O2 consumed o CO2/O2 has different values for lipids, carbs, and proteins  Lipids = 0.71  Proteins = 0.81  Carbohydrates = 1.0 o Can be used to estimate which fuel source is being metabolized predominately by individuals o May want to avoid high carbohydrate diets if patient has high blood CO2 levels (severe respiratory disease).

 Daily energy requirements (DER) are the average daily energy requirements of an animal (also called maintenance energy requirements [MER]). DER can be divided into four parts: o Resting energy requirement (RER)—energy needed to maintain normal body functions such as respiration. Typically makes up 60%–80% of DER. o Exercise energy requirement (EER)—energy exerted through muscular activity and exercise. o Thermic effect of food (TEF)—energy burned through digestion and absorption. Makes up about 10%–15% of DER. o Adaptive thermogenesis (AT)—energy used to stay warm or cool.

Formulating and Diet Plan

1. Nutrition Should be Assessed in Every Patient—“5th Vital Assessment”

a. Physiologic factors like age, species, breed, gender, environment, and disease should be

considered when making feeding plans.

2. Body Condition Scoring

a. System of estimating body fat using visual assessment and palpation

b. Two commonly used scales

i. 9-point scale—Developed by Purina pet foods

1—emaciated, 5—ideal, 9—obese

ii. 5-point scale—Developed by Hill’s Pet Nutrition

1—emaciated, 3—ideal, 5—obese

3. Body Fat Index

a. New method of estimating body fat in overweight and obese dogs and cats. Assess a higher degree

of obesity than traditional body condition scoring.

4. Morphometric Measurements

a. Uses measurements of certain body areas to assess body fat. Only appropriate for obese patients (8

or 9/9)

5. Calculating Resting Energy Requirements for Dogs and Cats

70 ×



0.75 kg


[(30 × BW kg) + 70]

The equation raised to the 0.75 power is more accurate. The linear equation can be used in animals between about 6–60 pounds.
Example: 5 kg cat 70 × 5^.75= 70 × 3.34 = 234 kcal/day (30 × 5) + 70 = 150 + 70 = 220 kcal/day

6. Daily Energy Needs = Y × RER a. After calculating the RER for an animal, you need to multiply by a life stage factor.
In the example above, if the 5 kg cat was a neutered male, you could take the 234 kcal/day you calculated and multiply by a life stage factor of 1.2 to estimate daily energy needs. 234 × 1.2 = 280 kcal/day.

Life Stage

Canine Factor

Feline Factor

Adult intact Neutered Senior Obese prone Weight loss Growth Gestation Lactation

1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 0.8–1.0 2–3 1–3 1.4

1.4 1.2 1.1 1.0 0.8 2–5 1.6–2 1.1

*** In overweight patients, RER should always be calculated based on ideal weight. Don’t forget to use kilograms instead of pounds!
If you do not have a scientific calculator with an Xy function, you can take the body weight and cube it and then take the square root of that number twice.
Example of the “hard way”: Body weight = 10 kg
Cube the body weight: 10 × 10 × 10 = 1,000
Take the square root of the result twice: √1,000 = 31.62
√ 31.62 = 5.62 kg
5.62 × 70 = 393 kcal/day
Recommended Reading Hand, Thatcher, Remillard , Roudebush, Novotny, eds. Small Animal Clinical Nutrition, 5th ed. Topeka: Mark
Morris Animal Institute, 2010.
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