Integrated Design - Appendix D Landscape Design & Street Trees

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Integrated Design - Appendix D Landscape Design & Street Trees

Transcript Of Integrated Design - Appendix D Landscape Design & Street Trees

Integrated Design - Appendix D
Landscape Design & Street Trees

1 Contents

1 2 3 4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.4.1 5.5 6

Contents ........................................................................................................................1 Introduction ................................................................................................................... 2 Information to be included in a Landscape Plan .......................................................2 General Planting Design and Form.............................................................................4
General...................................................................................................................... 4 Plant Size .................................................................................................................... 5 Plant Density and Layout ......................................................................................... 6 Plant Selection and Species .................................................................................... 7 Land Form.................................................................................................................. 8 Materials and Media ................................................................................................ 8 Maintenance ............................................................................................................ 9 Irrigation ..................................................................................................................... 9 Edging ........................................................................................................................ 9 Shade......................................................................................................................... 9 Specific Design Requirements ....................................................................................9 Entry Statements ....................................................................................................... 9 Street Tree planting within Council road reserve ................................................. 10 Planting in Car Parks ............................................................................................... 11 Streetscape Treatment & Screening within Private Property .............................. 13 Screening and Buffering ......................................................................................................... 14 Landscaping in mosquito buffer zones ................................................................. 17 Inappropriate Plant Species for General Landscape Use......................................19

6.1

General.................................................................................................................... 19

6.2

Inappropriate species not to be used in the region............................................ 19

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2 Introduction
As the scale and intensity of development continues to rise to meet population, economic and land supply pressures, Council recognises the importance of good quality landscape design in providing attractive, comfortable, safe and sustainable urban environments.
As part of an approach to facilitate higher development yields through increased allowances in density, site cover and reduced setbacks, the importance of landscaping to soften built form, add visual interest and provide engaging and functional spaces should not be underestimated.
This appendix provides the criteria, standards and guidance material for planning, designing and implementing successful landscapes in both private and public development. In all instances provision of infrastructure and services are required to be in accordance with the relevant Australian Standards and MBRC approved standard drawings, unless otherwise approved by Council.
For criteria, standards and guidance material concerning the design of public open space, park and civic spaces please refer to Appendix B - Open and Civic Space Design.
3 Information to be included in a Landscape Plan
Landscape plans will often be required to address criteria within the planning scheme or as a condition of a development approval to accompany subsequent applications such as Operational work.
In some circumstances, such as landscaping for gardens within private developments, a Landscape concept plan may be all that is required to justify compliance with criteria within the scheme. However, where soft or hard landscaping is in proximity or is being proposed in proximity to structures, services, trafficable areas or the like, the landscape plan is to be certified by a Registered Landscape Architect (as recognised by the ‘Australian Institute of Landscape Architects’), confirming that all information provided on the plan is correct and can be implemented onsite without compromising the safety and functionality of any services, structures or the like. The plan is also to confirm that services and structures as part of the development do not compromise the ability for plantings to achieve their desired purpose.
It is considered that all Landscape plans submitted which include planting within the road reserve such as street trees, rain gardens, and planting within proximity of retaining structures and underground services must be accompanied by Registered Landscape Architect certification. In some instances (e.g. shade trees within car parks or in close proximity to publicly accessible walkways, parks or civic spaces) an independent Arborists certification may also be requested.
Landscape plans contain the following information:
(a) A site plan showing: i. the existing contours and proposed finished levels of earthworks; ii. the location of existing and proposed buildings and other structures, including any landscaping or recreation features, on the site; iii. the location of existing or proposed storage areas, including vehicle storage areas;
iv. the location of all existing and proposed underground services; v. the location of existing footpaths, trees or other existing landscaped areas to be
retained or removed; vi. the location of all vehicular and pedestrian entries and exit on the site, and the internal
layout of pathways, driveways and parking areas.
(b) A planting design plan identifying the location of all plants and including a Plant Schedule. A Plant Schedule will: i. be divided up into trees, palms, shrubs, ground covers, climbers and ferns
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ii. include botanical names in alphabetical order and used in conjunction with common names. Plant coding is appropriate to avoid plans being cluttered with lengthy annotations;
iii. identify the quantity and pot size of each individual species used in the planting design; iv. identify the height and spread of trees at planting; v. identify spacing of all species and staking (if necessary); vi. identify any proposed irrigation strategy where irrigation is required;
(c) For Landscape Concept Plan packages identify the following through the use of scaled plans, sections and details:
i. Identification and description of the location and extent of views, and a description of local character and visual quality;
ii. Description and location of existing and proposed pedestrian and vehicular access routes and linkages into and around the site; (xxiv)
iii. Description of constraints (soil type, rock, location of existing roads and infrastructure such as water, sewer and stormwater drainage) that may impact on any landscape works associated with future development;
iv. Description of topographical features including slope analysis and location of any outstanding landscape features (including landmarks and built form);
v. Description of prevailing winds and any other climatic conditions that may impact on the landscaping works associated with development of the site; and
vi. Existing features on the site to be retained or removed e.g. vegetation, built form; vii. Any structures or significant vegetation on adjoining properties that could impact on the
site; viii. The location of any buildings, retaining walls, structures (including electricity
transformers, fire boosters and the like) site furniture and an indication of their form and character (including entry statements); ix. Existing contours and proposed finish levels for earthwork and extent of cut/fill or retaining walls necessary for development of the site; x. Surveyed location and botanical name of existing vegetation, including species’ height and spread, specifying vegetation to be retained and that to be removed; xi. Notations of design intent for any landscape works, including desired character themes and proposed function; xii. location of softscape areas including buffers, screens; rehabilitation areas, any garden bed areas and delineation of principle hardscape areas; xiii. Notation of potential proposed species for all areas to be planted (e.g. Native, exotic, feature planting, form and colour; xiv. Proposed fence size and material; xv. Surface, subsurface and drainage details associated with landscape works;
(d) For Detailed Landscape Plan packages identify the following through the use of scaled plans, sections and details i. A Plant Schedule divided up into Trees, Palms, Shrubs, Ground Covers, Climbers, Ferns etc. ii. Botanical names are to be in alphabetical order and used in conjunction with common names. iii. Quantity and pot size of each individual species used in the planting design are to be included on the Plant Schedule. iv. Height and spread of trees at planting is to be included on the Plant Schedule. v. Spacing of all species and staking (if necessary) is to be included on the Plant Schedule. vi. All species used and their planting locations are to be identified and notated graphically on the drawing by either full botanical name or by code which will be referred to on the plant schedule. The plan and plant schedule is to include plant coding where necessary to avoid plans cluttered with lengthy annotations.
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vii. The location of any buildings, retaining walls, structures (including electricity transformers, fire boosters and the like) site furniture;
viii. Specific construction details of surface treatment, edging, planting areas, turf areas, pavements, retaining walls, site furniture, fencing and any structure associated with the landscape works.
ix. Proposed finish levels for earthworks, batters retaining walls; pavements, turf field gullies;
x. A Maintenance Program is to be included as part of the information accompanying the Detailed Landscape Plan. The maintenance program is to address softscape and hardscape and reinforce the overall philosophy and objectives of the landscape design and include accepted horticultural practices and codes/best practices necessary to establish the proposed landscape works in the noted maintenance period.
(e) All plans are to contain: i. Plan numbers, date and revisions ii. Address and name and Job/File Number of project; iii. Client’s name and address; iv. Designer’s name and address; v. Locality plan including any adjoining roads, waterways and land uses; vi. North point;
vii. Real Property Description; viii. A suitable scale – 1:100, 1:200, 1:500, 1:750 ix. A legend;
x. Be produced on a standard A0, A1, A2, A3 or A4 sheet of paper.
4 General Planting Design and Form
4.1 General
Generally, plants are to be arranged to ensure an even and attractive coverage of vegetation across all designated planting areas, to provide for visual interest, way finding, shade, screening, and weed suppression whilst ensuring that public safety is not compromised.
Root systems and mature height and width of the vegetation are to be considered to reduce the imposition on adjoining pathways, roads, infrastructure/services and structures. Similarly, the selection and planning of shrubs and trees is to be undertaken with care to ensure that sightlines and safety for users of the landscape spaces are not compromised. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) principles are to be applied in the interests of public safety and Council’s duty of care.
Plants used are to be predominately local, native species, however Council recognises the cultural association of some exotic species in urban areas and may approve their use where appropriate.
Where wildlife habitat needs have been identified, plant selection which enhances wildlife movement opportunities are to be incorporated into landscape design of both the public and private realm. Design principles may include using gum trees as feature trees where space permits to provide refuge in urban ecological corridors and the use of wildlife friendly fencing.
Land form is also an important consideration during the Landscape design process, with gradients, batters, and retaining features needing to be adequately designed and integrated into the Landscape to address access, safety and maintenance outcomes.
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4.2 Plant Size
At the time of installation selected species are provided at an appropriate size to efficiently achieve its proposed function, while ensuring its viability. General pot sizes are listed in Table 1 below, with an approximate resultant size of plant shown on Figure 1. In areas of high visual impact, screening areas and buffers, larger and more advanced stock may be required to be utilised to achieve a stated outcome within the planning scheme.

Table 1: Suggested General Pot Size

Landscape Type
Groundcovers
General Shrubs / Trees
Shade & feature Trees in Car parks and Private landscape
Street trees within verge
Street trees within build-outs or wider verge areas (e.g. park and civic space
frontage) Revegetation Areas

Size
140mm Diameter Pots (Minimum)
200mm Diameter Pots (Minimum) 45 Litre Pots (Minimum) 45 Litre Pots (Minimum)
100 Litre Pots (Minimum)
Tube Stock

Figure 1: General pot size 5

4.3 Plant Density and Layout
Plant density is required to be adequate to suppress weed, provide full visual cover of garden beds and discourage access and development of shortcuts through garden beds. Figure 2 below provides an example of inappropriate versus appropriate planting density. Planting is to have a minimum planting ratio/density as per table 2 below:

Vegetation Type Tree Shrub Ground cover species

Number 1 per 5m2 1 per 1m2 3 per 1m2

Table 2: Minimum planting ratio (subject to individual species performance)

Inappropriate plant density

Appropriate plant density

Figure 2: Inappropriate plant density vs appropriate plant density 6

Ideally, designers should adopt a tiered planting approach to achieve a successful plant design and form. As indicated in the Figure 3 below, taller trees and shrubs are to be used to provide shade, scale and vertical emphasis, while smaller shrubs, grasses and groundcovers are used to suppress weed growth, lower maintenance costs and provide an articulated depth to landscape features.
Figure 3: Tiered Planting
4.4 Plant Selection and Species
When considering plant selection, landscape design and layout, the designer is to ensure:
 The design uses predominantly naturally occurring local native species from the Region, incorporating koala habitat trees as street trees or features trees where connectivity is required within a mapped environmental area or corridor.
 Hardy, long lived Perennial species are to be utilised and annual species avoided, particularly where landscaping occurs in public areas managed by Council. If annuals are proposed in landscaped areas, a rigorous maintenance regime is to be provided for assessment ensuring the function of the space will be maintained.
 Garden beds are to contain a suitable and sustainable combination of trees, shrubs and groundcovers to create visual diversity. Where landscaping is undertaken on public land, Council may consider only tree planting options in intensive urban spaces where visual connectivity is required and it is not practical to achieve dense low level vegetation.
 Plants that have been grown to a standard that allows them to establish and grow to maturity are to be provided.
 Plant selection will be based predominately on the use of species indigenous to regional ecosystems found in the local area, sourced from local shire provenance or in the case of named varieties or cultivars, bred from species not identified as invasive.
Species selection must have regard for:
 the mature size of the species, particularly in those areas of high bushfire risk, adjacent to rail corridors or major roads, power lines, residential areas and substations. Large trees are to be located 1.5 times the clear fell radius away from essential infrastructure in these instances, unless otherwise approved by Council
 the growing media volume and depth available to sustain mature growth;  the susceptibility of the species to poor drainage;  flower, fruit and leaf litter issues;  the pest and disease management requirements of the species in their proposed location;  landscape character and amenity;  shade considerations; and other ongoing maintenance requirements.  Limb drops from susceptible species (e.g. Eucalypt sp.) when planted in high traffic or high use
areas.
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plants that are not to be planted in the region due to invasive or destructive characteristics are listed in Part 6 - Inappropriate Species for General Landscape Use.

4.5 Land Form
In the design of landform as part of a landscape plan, the designer ensures:
 Gradient transitions are to be shaped to allow a variation of mowing patterns over a given area without causing scalping or excessively long grass.
 Mounding on the high side of pathways laid on low permeability soils may require subsurface drainage at the path edge to prevent flooding or siltation over the path.
 Turf adjacent to paths must be flush to mitigate drop off from the path which can lead to trips and falls
 Mounding is designed and constructed to minimise impacts on downstream properties or vegetation and minimise impacts to site drainage.
 Mounding is decompacted to a depth of 150mm by surface ripping prior to the application of soil, mulch or turf.
 Batters, steep rock slopes and retaining walls are designed, constructed and stabilised for function and durability, to minimise adverse impacts to the natural environment and adjoining premises caused by erosion or siltation and to protect the safety of residents and maintenance staff.
 Where sustainable vegetative cover is not achievable on extreme slopes, retaining walls will be required. Retaining walls over 1.0 metre high must be designed and certified by a suitably qualified and experienced Structural Engineer and are to be approved by Council prior to works commencing.
 The toe of any batters and associated drainage are to be contained within the boundaries of the development site and are not extended onto neighbouring lands or into adjoining vegetation protection zones.
 Retaining wall surfaces prone to unsightly graffiti will be required to be coated with an anti-graffiti material or screened with appropriate planting.
Maximum slope requirements for specific landscaped finishes are provided in the following table. Slopes greater than 1:3 will require civil design, carried out by a suitably qualified RPEQ.

Landscape Finish

Maximum Slope

Turfed Areas

1 in 4

Recreation Land

1 in 6

Garden Areas

1 in 3

Table 3: Maximum Slope Requirements Plant Selection

4.6 Materials and Media

In the design of materials and media for use in landscape planting the designer ensures:

 A minimum 450mm finished depths of topsoil is required across the entire vegetated area for intensive urban landscapes, medians and roundabout landscapes.
 Drainage is to be provided to all garden beds particularly in centre medians and road verges.  In ground planting areas are cultivated to a minimum depth of 300mm including subsoil cultivation
and decompaction measures.  Planting media, mulch and other landscaping materials are free of pests (including declared and
environmental weeds) and are appropriate for the ongoing growth of the proposed species.

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 The use of recycled materials is encouraged where safe and appropriate; and integrated into the landscape design.
 To ensure the long term viability of the landscape and to reduce maintenance, durable materials are utilised in the design.
 To reduce weed growth and maximise water retention, planting areas are mulched to a minimum depth of 100mm with organic or appropriate inorganic mulch.
 Where native vegetation is unavoidably cleared, habitat features such as hollow logs are to be harvested to enhance remaining and newly established habitat areas.
4.7 Maintenance
The maintenance of planting is minimised by suitable species selection and even mulch coverage. Landscape is designed with consideration for ease of access to maintain all landscape elements. The following considerations are required:
 Landscaping is designed to have a low water requirement and utilises appropriate species that do not require permanent irrigation after the establishment period. Effective use of rainwater is required.
 Landscaping is designed and constructed so the space can be efficiently and effectively maintained with low intervention rates.
4.8 Irrigation
Drought tolerant plants are to be used in the first instance, however where irrigation is required to effectively maintain the development landscape, because of species chosen or harshness of the microclimate, an irrigation system is to be installed, tested and commissioned by an irrigation consultant. Irrigation works are to be designed and installed utilising best management practices whilst taking into consideration future maintenance costs to the asset owner and the safety of the asset users.
4.9 Edging
Edging is designed to provide adequate separation between turf and gardens; to contain playground and fitness station soft fall zones, to separate turf and gravel swales, and to provide safety for maintenance staff and other user groups. Concrete is the preferred material for edging council owned lands and timber edging is not to be used where adjoining or within Council managed lands.
4.10 Shade
Landscape design provides shade in a manner that maximises user health and safety i.e. shade trees located adjacent to footpaths and situated around recreation areas. The integration of existing tree vegetation into the design helps to maintain canopy coverage and reduce impermeable surface heat reflectivity creating cooler urban spaces.
Natural shade is Council’s preferred outcome and hard shade solutions require approval due to increased long term maintenance costs and vandalism risk. Play facilities in particular should be located in close proximity to retained vegetation to maximise natural shade without compromising tree health.
5 Specific Design Requirements
5.1 Entry Statements
Development entrance features or estate names are an optional element that can be included in landscape plans to define and promote estates and enhance the character of the streetscape. Where the applicant chooses to include entrance statements details of the feature or structure are to be
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SpeciesLocationDesignTreesVegetation