Kelley Final Product Sheets (Page 1) - Kelley Loading Dock

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Kelley Final Product Sheets (Page 1) - Kelley Loading Dock

Transcript Of Kelley Final Product Sheets (Page 1) - Kelley Loading Dock

DOCK PLANNING
S T A N D A R D S
4Front Engineered Solutions, Inc. - KELLEY 1612 Hutton Drive, Suite 140 Carrollton, Texas 75006 Tel 800-558-6960 Fax 800-883-3296 e-mail: [email protected] www.kelleycompany.com

DOCK PLANNING
S T A N D A R D S
KELLEY®
Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 SITE DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
Locating the Loading Docks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Planning On-Site Traffic Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Designing Apron Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Selecting the Loading Dock Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
Inside/Outside Dock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Open Dock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Additional Dock Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Saw-Tooth Dock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Pier Dock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Free Standing Dock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Calculating the Number of Dock Positions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 DESIGNING THE LOADING DOCK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Truck Sizes and Weights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Under Ride Protection Bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Setting the Dock Height . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Setting the Loading Bay Widths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Determining Door Sizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Designing the Dock Interior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 SELECTING DOCKLEVELERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Comparing the Dockleveler Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Recessed Docklevelers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Edge-of-Dock Docklevelers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Specifying the Right Dockleveler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Width . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Lip Projection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Load Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Activation System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 Environmental Capability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 Specifying the Elevating Dock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 SELECTING BUMPERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 SELECTING TRAILER RESTAINTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Types of Trailer Restraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 ICC Dependant Restraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Powered Wheel Chocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 Dock Run-Off Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Gate Barriers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Lip Barriers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 SELECTING SEALS AND SHELTERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 Compression Foam Dock Seals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 Truck Shelters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 ACCESSORIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 Selecting Dock Doors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 Selecting Dock Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28

DOCK PLANNING
S T A N D A R D S
INTRODUCTION
Loading docks perform a critical function in the logistics system infrastructure. They form the link between manufacturing and transportation, and between transportation and storage functions. Since logistics is becoming more and more scrutinized in the overall effort to drive down costs, it follows that loading docks must be efficient and meet high standards.
This booklet provides guidelines for planning a modern, efficient and safe loading dock for handling palletized goods. The typical loading dock for palletized goods includes a raised loading platform, a dockleveler that forms a ramp between the dock and the delivery trucks, a trailer restraint to positively lock the trailer in place during loading/unloading and forklifts or pallet jacks to move the goods in and out of the trucks.
Designing the loading dock is an integral part of the facility process design. The planning starts at the point where traffic enters the facility property from the public road and ends where the trucks leave the property. The dock marks the beginning and the end of material flow through the facility. It integrates material handling inside the building with truck traffic outside the building. To maintain productivity, it must be as efficient as the facility it serves.
The loading dock is also a place of potential hazard. To protect workers, design it with the same high safety standards you apply to the rest of the facility.

KELLEY®

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SITE DESIGN
Locating the Loading Docks
To reduce material handling costs, locate the loading dock where it minimizes in-plant forklift traffic. It is easier to move a loaded truck to specific points around the building than it is to move the contents of that truck pallet-by-pallet inside the building.
Choose the loading dock location based on the needs of the in-plant process. Typically, loading docks are placed in one of two patterns:
• Combined, so that shipping and receiving are together (Fig. 1).
• Separated, with shipping and receiving at different locations (Fig. 2).
The combined dock is a good choice for smaller plants, with little receiving or shipping. However, since it has to serve both functions, its location often increases the travel distances for in-plant traffic.
Plan for separated docks at plants where the materials enter the production line in one part of the building and the production is completed in another. This arrangement minimizes in-plant movement of materials.
Planning On-Site Traffic Flow
The truck driver has a better view of and control of a truck when sitting on the inside of the turn. So, plan traffic flow around the facility that places the truck driver on the inside of each turn. Where the driver sits on the left side of the truck cab–in countries with right side road traffic–plan for counter-clockwise truck movement around the building (Fig. 3).

Trucks Shipping and Receiving Dock

Manufacturing Process

Fig. 1

Trucks

Shipping Dock

Docks

Manufacturing Process

Receiving Dock
Fig. 2

Building
Fig. 3

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For efficient on-site truck traffic, include the following elements in your design:
• An entrance driveway that is large enough to handle the turning radius of the longest truck serving the site. For efficiency and safety, permit trucks to be driven forward onto plant property, rather than backed up.
• Right angle turns onto the site that has a minimum inside radius of 26' and a minimum outside radius of 50' (Fig. 5).
• One-way access roads that are at least 13' wide and two-way roads that are at least 26' wide (Fig. 5).
• Employee roadways that are separate from truck traffic. • Truck waiting areas adjacent to the loading docks.
Unless you design the loading docks for peak arrival traffic, the waiting area has to accommodate all waiting trucks.
Designing Apron Space
The Apron Space is the space between the loading platform and the fence line or nearest obstruction. It includes the parking area, where the truck is parked during loading, and the maneuvering area; the space needed to maneuver the truck in and out of the parking area (Fig. 6 and Fig. 7). The minimum recommended center distance between the dock positions is 12'.
The minimum apron space needed depends on the center line distances between the parked trucks at the dock, the length of the trucks, and the steering geometry of the trucks. Also, if the trailers will be parked with the tractors detached, less apron space is needed.
The table below gives the minimum apron space for a typical 40 foot container rig.

Center Distance Apron Space

12' 13' 14' 16' 18' 120' 116' 113' 110' 108'

Apron Space

Public Street

50ft. radius
26 ft. Facility Entrance

Fig. 5

Loading Platform

Apron Space

Parking Area

Maneuvering Area

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, Fig. 6

12 ft. (minimum)

Parking Area

Maneuvering Area
Fig. 7

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We recommend this as the minimum. If the expected trucks are longer than that, increase the space proportionately, e.g. if the dock will handle 48 foot trailers, increase the space shown in the table by 20%. If the traffic pattern is such that the driver will make an outside turn add 50'.
If the plant floor is at grade, or has a low grade, recess the truck parking area so that the trailer bed will be at about the same height as the floor (Fig. 8). The parking area will then slope down toward the dock. Ideally, this slope should be 6%, or less. If heavy loads will be handled, slope should be no more than 3-5%. However, if space does not permit, you may increase the slope to an absolute maximum of 10%, and this will work only for light loads. Steep slopes force dock workers to load on an incline inside the truck and may cause loads to topple.
Also design drainage for recessed parking areas. As part of this design, the area next to the building should slope slightly away from the building for 1' to 3' (Fig. 9). A short area is preferable because the position of the trailer’s rear axle will then have less of an effect on the height of the trailer bed at the dock.
If the truck parking area is unpaved or is paved with asphalt, provide a concrete, landing gear pad at a suitable distance in front of and parallel to the dock wall (Fig. 10). This pad is needed to support the trailer’s landing gear when the trailer is parked without its tractor. For a standard 40' container chassis, the landing gear is about 33' from the back of the trailer, for a 20' chassis the gear is about 11'. Design a pad wide enough to handle the expected variety of trailers. It is also good practice to extend the pad all of the way back to the loading dock. To sustain a fully loaded trailer or a partially loaded trailer with a forklift on board, design the pad to support two point loads of 25,000 lbs. each, 6' apart.

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, Fig. 8

,,,,,,,,,, Dock
Height
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 1/2 in.-1 in.

Dock 1 ft.-3 ft.

Driveway Grade
Drain

Fig. 9

33 ft. for 40 ft.container
,y,y,y,y,y,y,y,y,y,y,y LandingGearPad
Fig. 10

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Selecting the Loading Dock Configuration
Security, traffic control, safety, worker comfort, space availability, and climate help determine which dock configuration you need. Based on the relationship of the building and the trailer, the two most common dock configurations are the inside/outside dock and the open dock.
Inside/Outside Dock
This common design places the loading platform inside the building, while the trailer remains outside (Fig. 11). With the proper door seals or shelter, the design offers excellent weather protection and security. A common variation of the inside/outside dock is the refrigerated dock.
The inside/outside dock design sometimes requires that you set back the building wall from the edge of the dock (Fig. 12). This is the case particularly for docks with recessed parking areas. The setback is needed to:
• Protect the wall from being hit by trucks
• Protect building projections, such as overhangs or signs
• Facilitate the installation of door seals
• Minimize the risk of injury
Allow at least an 8" clearance between the rear of the truck and the building wall, measured at a height of 6' above the dock platform. Also allow at least 6" of clearance between the top of the trailer and the building wall (Fig. 12).
For refrigerated docks include a vestibule between the loading platform and the refrigerated area. The vestibule creates an air lock between the outside and the refrigerated area (Fig. 13). The air lock minimizes the inflow of warm air and humidity. A well designed refrigerated dock reduces refrigeration power consumption by 50% or more and it reduces refrigerant coil defrosting by as much as 96%, compared to an open loading dock.

Fig. 11

6 in. Min.

8 in. Min. at 6 ft. Above Dock

Fig. 12

Grade

Cold Room

Vestibule

Seal

High Speed
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, Door

Dock Door Insulated Door Dockleveler
Fig. 13

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Open Dock
This design places both the loading platform and the trailer outside the building (Fig. 14). Open docks are commonly used for general warehousing in temperate and warm climates. You can protect the open dock somewhat by adding a canopy over the platform and sliding curtains around the dock perimeter (Fig. 15).
The open dock requires sufficient forklift maneuvering space between building wall and the docklevelers. Also, you must add concrete posts and safety chains, or other barriers, to reduce the risk of forklifts driving off the dock (Fig. 16).

Fig. 14
Canopy Sliding Curtains
Dockleveler

Fig. 15
Safety Chain

Concrete Post
Fig. 16

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Additional Dock Configurations
Building and property limitations sometime require the use of still other loading dock configurations.

Saw-Tooth Dock
If there is insufficient space available between the dock and the nearest obstruction to truck flow, a saw tooth layout (Fig. 17) can solve the problem. This design lessens the apron space required to move the trucks into and away from the loading area.
The table below shows the required apron space as dependent on trailer center distance and angle of saw tooth.

Center Dist., ft
12' 13' 14' 15' 16' 17' 18' 19'

Saw-Tooth Angle, Degrees 15˚ 30˚ 45˚ 60˚

121' 106' 88' 67'

119' 105' 86' 66'

118' 103' 85' 65'

116' 102' 84' 64'

114' 101' 83' 63'

113' 99'

82' 63'

112' 98'

81' 62'

111' 97'

80' 62'

The table is based on a 53 foot trailer, with the tractor attached during loading. If smaller trucks will use the dock, decrease apron space proportionately. If tractors will be disconnected when the container is parked, decrease the required apron space shown in the table by 24', 22', 18', and 14' for 15˚, 30˚, 45˚ and 60˚ angle respectively. As an example, if the center distance between the dock positions is 14', and the angle of the saw tooth is 45˚, the required apron space is 67'.

Angle of Saw Tooth

Apron Space

Fig. 17

Center Line of Trailers

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Pier Dock
When the building lacks enough wall space for the required dock positions, or if the building and process layout do not permit placing dock positions along the building perimeter, you can design a loading dock pier (Fig. 18).
Free Standing Dock
When there is limited space inside the building for a loading platform, you can add a free standing dock structure to the outside of the building (Fig. 19).
Calculating the Number of Dock Positions
To calculate the number of dock positions a facility needs you need to know the number of trucks that will be served, the average time required for loading or unloading each truck, and the timing of truck arrivals and departures.
For operations with seasonal processes, provide enough dock positions to handle peak periods–whether they are on a daily, weekly, monthly, or yearly cycle. When laying out dock positions, also consider providing one dock position for trash disposal.
Sometimes it is not practical to provide enough dock positions to handle peak truck traffic. In such cases, provide a truck waiting area. Truck waiting times and waiting areas can be traded off against the cost of more dock positions. When truck arrivals are numerous, fewer dock positions will mean longer waiting times and larger waiting areas.
You can estimate the number of dock positions you need for a certain truck volume by multiplying the number of trucks per hour times the turnaround time, in hours, for each truck to park, load and leave.
For example: If 20 trucks arrive each 8 hour day (20/8 = 2.5 trucks per hour), and loading takes 50 minutes (50/60 = 0.833 hrs), then the number of dock positions you need are 2.5 x 0.833 = 2.08 dock positions. In this case, provide three positions. If, in this example, all of the trucks were to arrive in the morning (4 hrs), you would need 4.17, or 5, positions.

Building Wall

Dock Pier

Docklevelers

Fig. 18

Dock House Dock Seal

Building Wall

Fig. 19

Dockleveler

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