National Institutes Of Health Clinical Center Clinical Center

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National Institutes Of Health Clinical Center Clinical Center

Transcript Of National Institutes Of Health Clinical Center Clinical Center

PRO: Obtaining Blood Cultures Approved by NPC May 17th, 2018
NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CLINICAL CENTER
CLINICAL CENTER NURSING DEPARTMENT
Procedure: Obtaining Blood Cultures from Peripheral and Central Venous Access Devices
SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT CHANGES SINCE LAST REVIEW
 Implementation of a standardized procedure  Peripheral and central venous access device collection addressed  Needleless connection devices on CVADs are to be cleansed with chlorohexidine
prior to blood culture collection.
 All culture bottles are to be marked prior to collection to prevent over and under
fill
 Cleanliness of the environment prior to collection addressed  Importance of hand hygiene prior to collection  (Appendix addressing alternative skin cleansing agents) To be developed  Information added for HAI Prevention Bundle
o Wiping of bedside area before using
 Included clarification of SoftID information
Clinical Nurse Specialist: Leslie Smith Primary Stakeholder(s): Stephanie Wildridge
Deletes or Replaces - CVAD Obtaining Blood Specimens (11/15)
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PRO: Obtaining Blood Cultures Approved by NPC May 17th, 2018
NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CLINICAL CENTER
CLINICAL CENTER NURSING DEPARTMENT
Procedure: Obtaining Blood Cultures from Peripheral and Central Venous Access Devices

Approved:
_______________//s//_____________________ Gwenyth R. Wallen, PhD, RN Chief Nurse, Clinical Center Nursing Department

Formulated: Implemented: Reviewed: Revised:

10/2016 12/2016 10/2016, 4/2018 10/2016, 4/2018

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PRO: Obtaining Blood Cultures Approved by NPC May 17th, 2018
Procedure: Obtaining Blood Cultures from Peripheral and Central Venous Access Devices
Essential Information 1. Critical elements involved in obtaining blood cultures include:
a. Hand hygiene practice performed by the collecting healthcare worker prior to collection
b. Adequate skin disinfection c. Ensuring required blood volume is collected AND d. One set of blood cultures equals one aerobic and one anaerobic bottle. e. Chlorhexidine pads and applicators are not to be reused once they have
been utilized to cleanse a surface of the lumen, culture bottle, or skin. Chlorhexidine pads are to be used when cleansing the tops of the blood culture bottles and the needleless connector. Swab sticks are to be used to cleanse skin. 2. Site selection: a. Peripherally drawn blood cultures are the optimal specimen. Blood cultures obtained via central venous catheters are more likely to be contaminated by organisms residing in the device itself or device components (i.e., tubing, end caps). b. It is preferable not to use arterial lines for blood cultures. 3. For adults: a. It is recommended that blood cultures be drawn in two (2) sets from two different site as ordered. The two cultures sets may be drawn sequentially without waiting between draws, but must be drawn from different peripheral sites or catheters/lumens. b. The volume for each blood culture bottle for adults should be a minimum of 3mL and a maximum of 10mL. c. It is preferable not to draw blood cultures from a peripheral IV site in adults. Blood drawn from a peripheral IV site can result in contamination of the culture. d. If under fill (less than 3 mL) is needed for the adult population, the LIP should state so in the blood culture order and microbiology should be notified of the under fill. 4. For pediatrics: a. The volume for each blood culture bottle for pediatric patients is weight based. (see Appendix A) 5. Collection: a. Blood cultures should be obtained prior to initiating antibiotics whenever possible. b. All culture bottles should be marked prior to collection to ensure required amount is obtained. c. If drawing other labs, blood cultures should be obtained first. d. Wait 30-60 minutes for peripheral draw after removal of central venous catheter. e. A waste sample is not drawn from a central venous access device.
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PRO: Obtaining Blood Cultures Approved by NPC May 17th, 2018

f. Each blood culture set is prepared individually with its own collection devices.
g. The aerobic bottle sample is obtained first. The anaerobic sample is obtained last.
h. If using a vacutainer to draw the blood culture, the culture bottle must remain upright to prevent culture media from flowing back into the patient and to insure that the proper volume of blood is obtained.
6. Transport: a. All blood cultures are sent via the Pneumatic Tube System (PTS) to Microbiology. Only one set of blood cultures maybe placed in a wellpadded PTS tube. If the PTS is not working, all blood cultures are sent via stat escort request. b. Blood cultures should be received by Microbiology within 120 minutes for accurate results.

Equipment for Peripheral Blood Culture: 1. Non-sterile Gloves 2. Tourniquet 3. Butterfly needle 4. Chlorhexidine (CHG) applicator 5. Chlorhexidine (CHG) pads (2) 6. One aerobic and anaerobic bottle for each site of blood culture 7. Vacutainer 8. Appropriate syringes and needle-less cannula (for use with pediatric reservoir
system)

Steps: 1. 2.
3.
4. 5.

Provide an age-appropriate explanation of the procedure to patients and families. Verify correct patient. Indicate site of collection using dropdown pick list in barcoding system. Print labels. Prepare the environment by cleaning area where placing supplies with hospital approved wipes per CCND Policy. . Perform hand hygiene and apply gloves. Mark each blood culture bottle with a pen to the appropriate volume to be drawn.

6. Once the hard plastic top from the blood culture bottles is removed, swab the rubber septum with a CHG pad for 30 seconds. It is very important to allow the prepared site to dry unassisted (i.e., without blotting, blowing, fanning, or wiping dry); the CHG

Key Points/Rationale: 1. Alleviates anxiety and promotes
understanding. 2. Use barcoding system pick list to indicate
collection site.
3. Minimizes microbial bioburden of the area.
4. See Appendix B. 5. This is to ensure the proper volume is
obtained. For adults, the volume should be marked for 10ml volume. Refer to Appendix A for pediatrics. 6. The top of the culture bottle is a dust cover only and is not sterile so cleansing with CHG pads disinfects the surfaces. CHG pads are not to be reused.

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PRO: Obtaining Blood Cultures Approved by NPC May 17th, 2018

dries in about 30 seconds.

7. A tourniquet is applied and the vein is

7. N/A

identified. The tourniquet is released if a

delay of more than one minute is expected

before performing venipuncture and

reapplied immediately before

venipuncture.

8. Swab designated blood draw site using a 8. The prepared area of skin is left

bidirectional scrub with chlorhexidine

untouched to prevent recontamination of

applicator for 30 seconds. It is very

the disinfected site. If the sterile site must

important to allow the prepared site to dry

be touched due to difficulty locating the

unassisted (i.e., without blotting, blowing,

vein or any other reasons the entire

fanning, or wiping dry); the CHG dries in

disinfection process shall be repeated.

about 30 seconds.

Povidone-iodine dries slower than CHG.

If allergy or sensitivity to CHG, use

povidone-iodine. See appendix B.

9. Collection using a vacutainer:

9. Draw aerobic bottle first.

a. Attach vacutainer to butterfly and

perform venipuncture

b. Insert aerobic bottle into the vacutainer

to obtain sample. Hold the bottle

upright so volume can be visualized.

c. Repeat with the anaerobic bottle.

d. After the necessary blood volume is

obtained, tourniquet is released.

e. The needle is removed from the patient

and the safety device is activated.

f. Pressure is applied to the venipuncture

site and is covered with gauze and/or

adhesive dressing.

10. Invert bottles for gentle mixing.

10. N/A

11. Repeat above steps for separate

11. N/A

venipuncture site.

12. Tube cultures to DLM as soon as possible, 12. Cultures need to be processed by

but no later than 2 hours after draw.

microbiology within 2 hours for accurate

results.

13. Document in CRIS.

13. N/A

Equipment for Central Venous Access Device Blood Cultures: 1. Non-sterile gloves 2. Sterile 4x4 3. (3) CHG pads (one for each lumen and one for each culture bottle) 4. Aerobic and anaerobic culture bottles for each lumen 5. Stopcock 6. (1) empty 10 mL syringe

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PRO: Obtaining Blood Cultures Approved by NPC May 17th, 2018

7. Vacutainer 8. (2) 10ml-Saline flushes (20ml total) 9. Heparin flush, if ordered

1. Provide an age-appropriate explanation of 1. Alleviates anxiety and promotes

the procedure to patients and families.

understanding.

2. Verify correct patient. Indicate site of

2. Use barcoding system pick list to indicate

collection using dropdown pick list in

collection site.

barcoding system. Print labels

3. Prepare the environment by cleaning area 3. Minimizes microbial bioburden of the area.

where placing supplies with hospital

approved wipes per CCND Policy.

Consider laying absorbent pad under

supplies to maintain asepsis.

4. Perform hand hygiene and apply gloves.

4. See Appendix B

5. Mark each blood culture bottle with a pen 5. This is to ensure the proper volume is

to the appropriate volume to be drawn.

obtained. For adults, the volume should be

marked for 10ml volume. Refer to

Appendix A for pediatrics.

6. Once the hard plastic top from the blood 6. The top of the culture bottle is a dust cover

culture bottles is removed, swab the rubber

only and is not sterile so cleansing with

septum with a CHG pad for 30 seconds. It

CHG pads disinfects the surfaces. CHG

is very important to allow the prepared site

pads are not to be reused.

to dry unassisted (i.e., without blotting,

blowing, fanning, or wiping dry); the CHG

dries in about 30 seconds.

7. Set up stopcock(s) with syringe, vacutainer 7. Do not flush central line. Do not draw a

and saline as shown in CVAD Blood

waste. No waste ensures that the blood

Collection Procedure.

sample contains that fill space of the

central vascular access device. One stop

cock setup per each set of blood cultures.

Please see Figure 1.

8. Select lumen of central line from which

8. A sterile 4x4 will decrease the risk of the

sample will be obtained. Place sterile 4x4

catheter becoming contaminated during the

under lumen.

blood culture collection.

9. Scrub needleless connector with CHG pad 9. Ensure that end and threads of needleless

for 30 seconds. It is very important to

connector are cleansed with CHG pad.

allow the prepared site to dry unassisted

CHG pads are not to be reused.

(i.e., without blotting, blowing, fanning, or

wiping dry); the chlorhexidine dries in

about 30 seconds

10. Connect stopcock to needle-free connector. 10. N/A

11. Withdraw 8-10ml, for adults, or

11. Do not draw samples directly from central

appropriate volume for pediatric patients

vascular access device into bottle. Hold

into empty syringe and transfer to the

bottle upright when filling bottles from

blood culture bottle with the stopcock

syringe. This aids in preventing over and

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PRO: Obtaining Blood Cultures Approved by NPC May 17th, 2018

turned off to the patient.

under fill of blood culture bottles. Please

refer to Appendix A for pediatric patient

sample volume to collect.

12. Repeat step 11 for the collection of the

12. Draw aerobic culture bottle first.

anaerobic culture bottle.

13. Flush line with saline post draw.

13. Refer to PRO: Appendix A: CVAD

Flushing Guidelines Table, Adult and

Pediatric

14. Tube cultures to DLM as soon as possible, 14. Cultures need to be processed by

but no later than 2 hours after draw.

microbiology within 2 hours for accurate

results.

15. Document in CRIS.

15. N/A

FIGURE 1: Double Stopcock and Vacutainer or Syringe Method (Closed Loop System)
FIGURE 1 1. Attach vacutainer holder or
syringe for drawing blood (sampling syringe) to stopcock port closest to patient-end of the stopcock. Turn valve off in direction of vacutainer OR sampling syringe. 2. Attach empty 10 mL syringe to next port. Turn valve off to syringe. 3. Attach syringe of 0.9% Sodium chloride to female end of stopcock and flush air out of stopcock. Turn valve off to 0.9% sodium chloride syringe.

References: 1. Chandrasekar P, Brown W. (1994). Clinical Issues of Blood Cultures. Archives of Internal Medicine, 154:841-849. 2. Ernest D. (1999). Collecting Blood Culture Specimens. Nursing, 29(7):56-8 3. Murray, et al. (1995). Bacteriology and Mycology Specimen Collection Guidelines. Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 21-22. 4. Pennsylvania Hospital (2002). Blood culture collection. Policy and Procedure. 5. Schifman R, Pindur A. (1993). The Effect of Skin Disinfection Materials on Reducing Blood Culture Contamination. American Journal of Clinical Pathology. 99:536-538. 6. University of Kentucky (2014). Peripheral Blood Culture Collection Policy and Procedure. Policy A08-100.

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PRO: Obtaining Blood Cultures Approved by NPC May 17th, 2018
7. Weinbaum F, Lavie S. (1997). Doing It Right the First Time: Quality Improvement and the Contaminant Blood Culture. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 35:563-565.
Contributing Policy, Procedure, Standard of Practice: 1. CCND Hospital Acquired Infection (HAI) Prevention Policy 2. PRO: CVAD Flushing a Central Line, Apheresis, or Dialysis Catheter, Appendix A : CVAD Flushing Guidelines Table, Adult and Pediatric
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PRO: Obtaining Blood Cultures Approved by NPC May 17th, 2018
Appendix A

NIH CCND Pediatric Blood Culture Fill Volume Guide

Weight (kg) 5-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 >40

Volume for culture
At least 2 mL into each “Aerobic Plus” and “Anaerobic Plus” bottles. At least 3 mL into each “Aerobic Plus” and “Anaerobic Plus” bottles. At least 5 mL into each “Aerobic Plus” and “Anaerobic Plus” bottles. At least 8 mL into each “Aerobic Plus” and “Anaerobic Plus” bottles. 8-10 mL into each “Aerobic Plus” and “Anaerobic Plus” bottles.

Maximum volume of blood drawn within a 24 h period 12 mL
18 mL
30 mL
48 mL
60 mL

Caution is advised when drawing repeated blood cultures in a pediatric patient within a 24 h period. If the total volume exceeds the recommendations in the chart, recheck volumes with the attending physician before drawing additional cultures.

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PRO: Obtaining Blood Cultures Approved by NPC May 17th, 2018

Appendix B

How to Perform Hand Hygiene

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Blood CulturesVolumeNpcBottleMicrobiology