Nonverbal Communication in Business Negotiations and Business

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Nonverbal Communication in Business Negotiations and Business

Transcript Of Nonverbal Communication in Business Negotiations and Business

International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences ISSN: 2300-2697, Vol. 62, pp 62-72 doi:10.18052/ CC BY 4.0. Published by SciPress Ltd, Switzerland, 2015

Online: 2015-10-29

Nonverbal Communication in Business Negotiations and Business Meetings
Kęstutis Peleckis1a, Valentina Peleckienė2,b, Kęstutis Peleckis3,c
1Professor, Doctor of social sciences, Faculty of business management, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Lithuania
2Associate Professor, Doctor of social sciences, Faculty of business management, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Lithuania
3Doctoral student, Faculty of business management, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Lithuania
E-mail address: [email protected], [email protected], [email protected],
Corresponding Author: [email protected]

Keywords: business negotiations, business meetings, business communication, body language, nonverbal communication.

ABSTRACT. This paper examines the importance of reading the body language signals in business negotiations and business meetings. By observing the physical changes of the human body, gestures, can lead to a more or less realistic impression about opponent, feelings of the other person, his mood, thoughts, expectations, intentions, and their changes. In non-verbal body language are very much important things: human posture, dress, accessories, gestures, eye contact, facial expressions, smile, voice intonation, laughter, eye contact, eye signs, the distance between the communicators, touch, clap, dance, and physiological responses - sweating palms, forehead, paleness, resulting in acute facial, neck redness and others. Part of nonverbal communication signs, or in other words the body language signals are sent consciously (natural or play signs, signals), and the other part of the body signals is emitted into the environment unintentionally, when to the information received response is made immediately, instantly, instinctively and without thinking. Body language signals in business negotiations or business meetings are important in several aspects: - reveal the other person’s, the opponent's physical and emotional state as well as its evolution; - complement, reinforce or weaken the spoken language; - allows those who are able to read nonverbal communication signs, to determine more or less accurately whether oral language is true.

Relevance. In business communication, business negotiations, business talks, as well as human communication in general, is important not just transferred information of words context, but also how those words were said, what a voice nuances were used. In addition not less important are the body signals, which by talking consciously or unconsciously we send. When people are dealing, communicating, so their bodies are sending many signs of body language - messages. As stated by Allan and Barbara Pease, the most important is not that what you told, but how you looked by saying " [23]. Joe Navarro [21] notes that "these behaviors and communication, are often referred to as a non-verbal behavior or body language, the way of communication - just like the word spoken aloud, but this is done by facial expressions and gestures, touch (haptic), physical movements (kinetics), posture, body decoration (clothes, jewelry, hairstyles, tattoos), even tone of voice, timbre and strength (it does not matter what people say)." Joseph Messinger emphasizes that "social credibility based on video - motion effects - significantly surpasses the language or even appearance of impression which clothes provide. The message transferred by gestures enrich the language, provides for retaining words special emphasis " [18]. So by observing physical changes

This paper is an open access paper published under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (CC BY) (

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of the human body, gestures, we can give more or less realistic impression on person’s being, mood, feelings, thoughts, expectations, intentions, and their changes.
Problem. Inability in business negotiations, business meetings to assess the opponent’s, the interviewer’s body language (physical changes, gestures, expressions, and other signs that show about his well-being, mood, feelings, thoughts, expectations, intentions, and their changes) can be a significant obstacle to efficient business negotiations, achieving the results of businessman conversation.
The research object - the body language in business negotiations, reading of signs, signals in business talks.
The aim of research - to describe the body language signs, signaling mechanisms of expression and rules of their reading and interpretation, compliance with which enables business communication, business negotiations, business talks to form more effective decisions, use the steps of communication steps, tactics, based on objective information about the opponent being the interviewer, moods, feelings, thoughts, expectations, intentions, and their changes.
Research methods – systematic, comparative, logical analysis and synthesis of scientific literature.
The beginning of serious researches of nonverbal language is associated with the book published by Julius Fast "Body Language" in 1970 [9]. Albert Mehrabian - a pioneer of body language researches [15], [16], [17] found that 7% of the information is conveyed by the words, 38% - by voice features, and about 55% of the information is conveyed by non-verbal language. A good negotiator must consciously manage his non-verbal language, to understand what he is demonstrating for his opponent as well to know how to understand opponent's body language, to see when his verbal and body language conflicts with each other, when - are the same. There are very important impulses that can drastically change the course of the negotiations and the final outcome of the negotiations. The researchers Allan and Barbara Pease examined thousands of entrepreneurs and found out that about 60-80 percent of entrepreneurs are watching body language and form an opinion on the new one person as soon as possible within four minutes. Their research also showed that in the negotiations by telephone usually wins that person whose arguments are much more significant, but it is invalid when met in face-to-face, as final conclusions are made based on what we see, rather than just relying on your hearing [23].
The ability to understand the other person, the opponent's body language - imagine what he is thinking, what he feels, how he is reacting, what he is going to do - are very important in business communication, business negotiations and business meetings. To develop this ability is needed to put a lot of work: to absorb theory and to apply it in practice. However, must be taken attention to the relationship between the viewing (seeing) and listening. As pointed out by Joseph Messinger, "our way of listening is not ready to understand two such different ongoing activities as watching and listening. We are not available to focus steady attention to two such different sensory processes. We instinctively distinguish two of automatism - listening and seeing but we cannot connect them into one joint listening process " [18]. In order to learn how to listen and see at the same time it should be given additional attention and put the extra efforts, which in future will become additional communication capabilities.
Joe Navarro emphasizes the importance of reading the body language signals, arguing that "the behaviors and messages can reveal the true human thoughts, feelings and intentions. For this reason, it is sometimes referred to as an eloquent behavior. People are not always aware that they communicate without speaking, and so often their body language is much more real, because in order to achieve their goals people carefully think over the words. If you are observing the other person's non-verbal behavior and understand what he feels, what is his plan and how he intend to do or figure out the meaning of the words – to decrypt his tacit language and took advantage " [21]. Body language is very informative and sends to the interviewer, to the opponent many signals, but


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uniquely it is difficult to interpret, and sometimes it is not possible or desirable. The accuracy and the quality of the interpretation depends on the interpretive knowledge and practice.
Body language or non-verbal communication includes many of the human body signs. In nonverbal body language are available a lot of important things as human posture, dress, accessories, gestures, eye contact, facial expressions, smile, voice intonation, laughter, eye contact, eye signs, the distance between the communicators, touch, clap, dance, and physiological responses - sweating palms, forehead, paleness, resulting in acute facial and neck redness and others [1], [2], [3], [4], [5]. It should be noted that part of the signs of nonverbal communication is sent consciously (natural or play signs, signals), and the other part of the body signals is emitted to the environment unconsciously, when response to information received is at once, instantly, instinctively and without thinking [6], [7], [8], [10]. However, still, all nonverbal communication signs are controlled by the human brain. As pointed out by Joe Navarro, "it is important to understand that the brain controls all behavior - and the conscious and the unconscious. This assumption is a cornerstone of our understanding of the whole non-verbal behavior. There is no action - from a mere scratching of the head to the creation of the symphony - which would not be governed and which would not be managed by the brains (the exception - involuntary muscle reflexes). Thus, on the basis of nonverbal behavior, we can understand what the brain wants to show " [21]. With the help of thoughts we can try to cover up our feelings, emotions, but there are some non-verbal behaviors and information signs, signals that our body will create. To notice and understand such reactions is vital [11], [14], [21], [24].
Human response to environmental stress is associated with emotions and survival. System of the human brain during the thousand-year history of the development have developed and established a simple nervous system of the three forms on response to the risk: to stop suddenly, to run or to fight [21]. As pointed out by Joe Navarro, animals and people are responding to danger as follows: first freeze, then running, subsequently struggling. If you really would respond to danger by fighting or as running, you would walk in stud bruises, beaten and exhausted. Instantly to freeze in face of threat – is the most effective way to respond" [21].
We freeze not only after seeing danger, but also having heard, for example, the doorbell in the middle of the night. Stagnation over the long-standing history of mankind changed the shape and currently is used much more subtle. Stagnation phenomenon appears for many people during the interview for a job, after scolding, while interrogating a man about things which, in his opinion, can result for him in trouble, because of the desire in certain situations to become "invisible" and in other cases. Stagnation effect occurs for example, when people are caught by cheating, stealing or lying: when threat arises or they are aware of fraud, they react in the same way as our ancestors freezing [21]. A brief pause and stiffness allows to assess the dangers and to decide on future steps.
When freezing is not enough and dangers are relentless or when the stiffness is not the best way (for example, when the threat is too close) the second response begins to act: running. The purpose of this response – is to escape or at least to be placed away from danger [21]. Response of running through human evolution also gained a variety of more subtle forms, but its essence remains the same - to separate physically or to distance themselves from unwanted persons or things, to avoid unwanted things, to distance themselves from them. Seeking to avoid conversation with unpopular man we turn away and overlook that person. Avoidance can take many forms: the man closes his eyes, rubbing his eyes, face cover with hands [21]. Avoidance can occur by increasing the distance between yourself and the other person - scrolling back, reclining, placing some things on your lap (such as a computer, handbag), turning the legs toward the nearest exit, and in other ways. In business negotiations, negotiator of one side can move away from the representative of the other side on hearing unattractive proposal or felt threatened in the midst of negotiations, can close his eyes, rub his eyes, hid his face in hands, feet turn toward the door. As stated by Joe Navarro ”such behavior is not related to cheating, but rather indicates that person is uncomfortable”. Old running response today is seen as distancing nonverbal behavior, with which people try to increase the distance. So if your business partner will increase the distance between me and you at the negotiating table, it means that he does not like something [21].

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If a person facing danger cannot stay unnoticed by freezing and cannot escape by running away, remains to him the only choice - fighting. Fighting response is the final tactical tool to stay alive through aggression [21]. In the course of evolution not only people, but also the whole mammals developed a strategy to turn fear into anger. But in today's world to act in anger is not acceptable (which may even conflict with the law), so without the primitive response of fighting people have created and more subtle forms of the fight: disputes, quarrels, insults, unfounded accusations, running the opponent's status, provocation, bullying - these are all manifestations of hostility, in these days replacing the struggle [21]. Hostility to another person can be reflected in posture, gaze, swelling breasts, or in violation of another person's personal space. After a sharp clash emotions are boiling and this already impedes for concentrating, sober, objective thinking. Sometimes in business communication, business negotiations and business talks can be specifically provoked frustration and anger of the other side with aim to reduce the opponent's cognitive abilities, opportunities of fully, objectively assessment the situation.
Body language signals in business communication, business negotiations are important in several ways:
- reveal the opponent's physical and emotional state as well as its evolution; - complement, reinforce or weaken the spoken language; - allows to those who know how to read nonverbal communication signals to determine more or less exactly whether are told the truth by oral language. As pointed out by Allan and Barbara Pease "the basic communication signals in the world are the same. When people are happy, they are smiling and when they are sad or irate – are angrily looking and somber, nodding the head in favor or say "yes". Lean head movement apparently is innate, since so are doing and blind people by nature. Shaking of the head means denial, also almost universal movement, which is learned in infancy " [23]. However, in addition to congenital and genetically determined body language signals, there are also signs of nonverbal communication, which content is determined by the following factors: - National - the same gestures in different nations may have different meanings; - Cultural - ethics, etiquette knowledge, educational level, and other aspects of culture determine the arsenal of used body language signals; - Professional - lightweight, weak handshake may arise from human occupation, for which he must keep his fingers; - Actor capabilities - many people have more or less actor ability, knowing how to play one or the other role not only in words but also by body language; - Temperament, energy of human - people of different temperaments, different energy are using body language signals of different amplitudes, different intensities, different dynamics and their sets; - The state of human health - a glimpse of an unhealthy human is different, his voice sounds different, gestures are more sluggish, slower (but there are disorders that are accompanied by increased emotionality, excitability, irritability); - Status of the human - usually the higher the status of the person, the less he uses gestures, the gestures are more refined, he moves with dignity and slower than those with less power; in conveying information relies more on verbal language; - Belonging to a group of people - non-verbal behavior is influenced by the group's tradition, norms, and rules; - Age of human - age can change the speed of person’s movement; - The coordination of non-verbal signals - usually more than one signal indicate about state of human. Several nonverbal communication signs, among which must be harmony - a lack of harmony tells about insincerity of the opponent; - Possibility to show and receive nonverbal communication signs - physical restrictions between communicating people impedes for full communication.


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To understand what about speaks the body of our opponent, we must not only monitor his movements and gestures, but also, how they are changing in business communication course. The changes of opponent's body language records the moments when is changing of his position. Therefore, in the processes of business communication, business negotiation or business conversations must be carefully monitored when and why it happens. The body of business communications partner, the opponent is the litmus test that shows whether our chosen actions, measures of effect are correct, effective, or not. It is not possible to keep all of the opponent's movements and facial expressions, as during business negotiations, business interviews is needed to think and about other things. But most important thing is to capture those moments when are changing the opponent's reactions by listening to our reasoning or contra argumentation, and to what side: positive or negative.
Joe Navarro says that it is important to capture "the way people behave when they are being in the comfort and discomfort conditions and with the help of this, learn to understand what they feel, think and intend to do so " [21]. The person during his being in the comfort zone (well-being), his body language tells of his good mental and physical conditions, manifested in self-confidence, satisfaction, positive emotions and positive feelings. When the person is experiencing discomfort his body language is reflecting the stress, the lack of confidence and bad internal state.
However, the human brain is programmed in such a way that would make us to pursue for security, if possible, to avoid the risk (or discomfort) and to pursue of security (or comfort). Our brains and body are acting together, calming us and give confidence in the security [21]. Joe Navarro this called the tranquilisation behavior [21]. He argues that to understand the "stagnation, running and fighting denial influence of nonverbal behavior, is only a half of the job, because after the appearance of the response (especially for high-risk, negative experiences) is following the calming behavior – “brain stimulates the body to make the consolation (sedative) action. They are clearly visible and have immediately understandable signs. It is important to notice them and to clarify in a real situation [21], [22]. As pointed out by Joe Navarro, “tranquilisation is not unique to humans. For example, dogs and cats in order to calm down lick themselves and each other. For people in general it is much more diverse calming behavior. Sometimes it is very obvious sometimes hardly noticeable. Most people who were asked to indicate the soothing behavior model, in particular, are thinking about a child sucking on the thumb. The adults are calming down with less obtrusive, socially more acceptable ways (for example, chewing gum, gnawing a pencil, pen). Many of the people not notice such subtle behavior, assisting to calm down or do not understand its importance in detecting person's thoughts and feelings. What a pity! In order to understand well non-verbal behavior, is just necessary to learn recognize and decrypt signs of sedatives. Why? As the person’s calming behavior can say a lot about the mental state of the human" [21].
In business communication, business negotiations, it is important to notice opponents, the interviewers behavioral signs of sedation, which would show that he feels constrained or negatively responds to our actions and words, since "after action, revealing discomfort (for example, withdrawal from the interviewer, look disapprovingly, crossbones, or bent in arms), the brain commands hands to perform sedative action [21]. As pointed out by Joe Navarro from their practice: "Touching the neck, and (or) stroke is one of the most important and most frequently performed movements which seek to calm down, in response to stress [21]. The women are trying to calm down, often cover the palm on the hole of neck, or touch it - they are suffering, are afraid, feel uncomfortable, unsafe, because are lying or hiding information [21]. Joe Navarro believes that "behavioral signs of sedation are much more significant and more reliable than the effort to determine whether a person is telling the truth. They help us to understand what topics excite someone or ripped. Just learned this, often is possible to find out before carefully concealed information, which may provide new insights " [21].
Sedative behavioral mechanism is as follows: "The brain sends a message: "please reassure us immediately, and hands instantly react, carrying action, which helps to feel well again" [21]. Everyone has their own habits of the sedative action: some chewing gum, and other smokes, eats

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more, gently massage the neck, run your hand over your face, lick your lips, cheeks or tongue swipe of the inside of the mouth, slowly exhales after inflated cheeks, chin rubbing, caressing your face, touching objects (pencil, pen, lipstick, wristwatch), the woman pulling on the hair, turning on the finger hair, man brush away over a shirt bosom, straighten a tie. As stated by Joe Navarro, "any touching of the face, head, neck, shoulder, arm, hand or leg in response to a negative stimulus (such as a hard question, a difficult situation or stress) to be considered soothing behavior. Stroking of any part of the body does not help to solve problems, but quieten, relieve our anxiety. Men usually touches the face, women - neck, clothing, jewelry, arms and hair" [21]. In business communication, business negotiation, dealing with an opponent, the interviewer have noticed behavioral signs of sedation is the need to ask yourself: "Why does this man calms himself?“. And the most important is thing: the ability to link to sedative behavior with stressors, can contribute to a much better understanding of human thoughts, feelings and intentions " [21].
In order to learn more about your opponent’s, participant in business communication, business negotiation or a conversation favorite sedative action, is necessary to comply with the a few rules [21]:
1. To see sedative course action. If you will observe carefully, looking for signs of the body, you will go gradually easier.
2. Set the basic behavior of a sedative of interested person. Then you will learn when his calming treatment increased (or) intensified and you can react accordingly.
3. If you notice that the man has a soothing gesture, stop by and ask yourself, "What made him do this?" It is clear that this man befallen concern. Your task of non-verbal information collecting work – is to reveal the reason.
4. Remember, the sedative action people almost always uses to calm down after the stress. In terms of, whether a non-verbal signs speak the truth, you know that moving from foot to head, faithfulness to the truth decreases. As stated by Allan and Barbara Pease, more parts of the body are away from the head, the more it is forgotten. For example, most are aware of the facial expressions and gestures. Even we can show some of the expressions, "put a valiant face whether look disapprovingly, lift the suffering" or "seem happy with."…Less than face we know the arms and hands, continued the chest and abdomen, at least we know about legs and almost forget about your feet. Legs show people's views, as most seems unaware of what are doing their limbs, in addition with them deliberately shall not be performed such false gestures, which are made with face. A person can look focused, self-control, and his feet are falling on and kicking the air, in order to escape "(Pease 2012). As shown by Allan and Barbara Pease studies with managers, “managers by lying, regardless of gender, unconsciously much more move their legs. Most of the staff had a hacker’s facial expressions, they by lying tried to control their hands, but almost no one knew what their feet are doing. These results were confirmed by the psychologist Paul Ekman, who found, that by lying are increasing the lower body movements, and observers better exposes the lies when they see a liar's body. This explains why business leaders feel more comfortable hiding at desks with a solid front. Glass surface, and tables are causing more stress than massive tables, because you can see the human legs, then it is difficult to control yourself completely " [23]. So the legs are less lying human organ.
5. The ability to link a sedative treatment for certain causative factors of stress can lead to a better understanding of the person with whom you are communicating.
6. Under certain circumstances, to better gain a full understanding of human thought and intention, you can say something or do to make sure in whether this poses a person under stress (as indicated by increased calming behavior).
7. Note the location of the body which calms a person. This is very important because the greater the stress, the more the man is caressing the face or neck.
8. Remember, the stronger the stress or discomfort, the greater the likelihood that a person will do this sedative action.


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Observation and capture of sedative action – is an important measure to evaluate comfort and discomfort of opponent, interviewer. The soothing action says a lot about his emotional state, feelings, intentions, expectations and fulfillment degree of the planned actions.
Joe Navarro provides 10 rules that must be followed in order to successfully monitor and decode nonverbal communication signs [21]: 1. Become an insight environmental monitors. Joe Navarro says that "attentive listening is important to understand what is said in words, careful monitoring of vital importance in order to understand people's body language." According to him, the focus on monitoring is necessary to understand the people and correctly to clarify illuminating signs of their nonverbal behavior [21]. Many people lack a sense, which is called the understanding of the situation since this is not taught in or the initial school or the gymnasium, or higher education [21]. However, to your happiness, attention is likely to be acquired - this skill can be developed by learning and applying knowledge in practice. If you're unobservant, do not despair. This weakness can be overcome, if you take the time and effort for diligent observation of the surrounding world " [21]. As pointed out by Joe Navarro (Navarro, 2013), "observation - observation focus - must become a way of life. Passivity will not help. It is a conscious, deliberate behavior that requires effort, energy, concentration and constant practice. Attentiveness is like a muscle: is on the rise when is exercised and at the nonuse - atrophied. Exercising of your muscles of attentiveness you will be able better understand the world " [21]. 2. Observation carried out in context helps to understand better non-verbal behavior. To understand the reality of nonverbal behavior, we need to understand the real context on substantive situation. Then the easier it will be to understand, what that behavior means. For example, hand cross on the chest during the negotiations may indicate a distancing between the information received, locking it, disagreement with the given view. The same process was carried out during the winter at station, waiting for the trolleybus, will mean another thing - the desire to freeze less, to save own thermal energy. 3. Learn to recognize and decipher the universal non-verbal behavior. Signs of non-verbal behavior are universal characteristic of almost all people. As pointed out by Joe Navarro, "certain body language is considered universal, since most people do so. For example, some people will compress lips that are almost no longer visible, this is a clear sign that they are worried about, that something is wrong " [21]. For example, sweating palms signals about nervousness, tension, surprise are shown by raised eyebrows, questioning, closed eyes, glower frustration, anger, mouth area touching fingers, pencil, pen shows that people are worried. 4. Learn to recognize and to understand unique nonverbal behavior. In addition to the universal signs of non-verbal behavior are unique, distinct, signs, specific to particular person. The longer a business partner, opponent, companion communicate, the easier it will be possible to detect and identify the unique behavior of a non-verbal signs by which we will be able to take appropriate decisions. 5. Communicating with people, try to figure out what is their basic behavior. Joe Navarro, draws attention to the fact that "in order to understand what is the basic behavior of the people with whom you communicate regularly, pay attention to how they look, how are they sitting, where are keeping their arms, how do they keep legs, what is their posture and facial expression, what angle the head is raised and even where they normally put or keep their belongings. You must learn to ... separate calm face from the tense. ... Looking to things that are normal, we start to notice and understand gradually what are not normal " [21]. 6. Observing people try to look every few eloquent signs - such behavioral traits that appear at the same time or one after the other runs. As pointed out by Joe Navarro, the ability to understand people will improve more, when you will learn how to notice a few illuminating signs or their group. These signals act together, they like

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puzzle pieces. More of them you will have, the higher possibility of arranging the picture will be” [21]. 7. It is important to look for changes of human behavior, which may mean a change in thoughts, feelings, interest or intention. Joe Navarro says that "Sudden change in behavior can help reveal how a person processes information or adapt to exciting events. Under certain circumstances ... changed behavior might issue of human interest or intention. A close monitoring of these changes can predict future actions, and to gain an advantage, especially if those actions could cause harm to you or others " [21]. 8. It is equally important to learn how to notice false or misleading non-verbal signs. Abilities to distinguish between real and fake signals are obtained only of know-watching experience. Joe Navarro claim to be not only focused track, but a cautious approach " [21]. 9. To be able to distinguish whether people feel free or not, will focus on the behavior of the most important features that help decode the non-verbal behavior. As pointed out by Joe Navarro, "in human behavior needs to look for two major things: comfort and discomfort. If you have any doubt ... what the real meaning of human behavior, ask yourself if it is similar to the comfort (for example,, satisfaction, happiness, relaxation), whether the discomfort (anger, sadness, stress, anxiety, tension) [21]. 10. Observe the people unobtrusive. Joe Navarro, draws attention to the fact that "if you want to use non-verbal behavior, you must closely look at the people and decipher exactly what mean their dumb behavior. However, people need to be monitoring carefully, and not staring, just like many beginners. Intrusively monitoring is not advisable. The best is to track other when they are not aware, in other words, unobtrusive. Refine observation skills, until your efforts will bring not only fruit, but nobody will feel to be monitored. It all depends on practice and perseverance " [21].
Understanding of non-verbal behavior and its interpretation is not a simple thing. Attempts to guess one or the other sign of non-verbal language value can often be mistaken as the same sign can mean many things. The head scratching, according to Allan and Barbara Pease, can express sweating, uncertainty, dandruff, forgetfulness, lies and other things [23]. Three rules of sign interpretation should be used in order to interpret correctly non-verbal communication signs are formulated by Allan and Barbara Pease [23]: 1. Read the sign groups. As stated by Allan and Barbara Pease, “spoken and body language consist of the alleged words, sentences and punctuation. Every gesture is similar to the word that has many different meanings. Meaning of words is revealed ... combining them into sentences. Gestures form a group or body language sentences and reliable disclosure of personal feelings or attitudes. To be clear gesture meaning, non-verbal sentence must consist of at least three gestures group. The insightful person can read the non-verbal sentences and carefully line with person spoken sentences " [23]. Body language sentence, "I do not like what you say" (or "I disagree"), Allan and Barbara Pease makes such gestures group (set) an example: a critical assessment of the most important signal - a gesture of the hand to the face, perpendicular to the index finger touches the cheek, the great toe cover your mouth and the thumb holds the chin. Other critical listener's disposition of evidence - one on the other leg lifted, hand pressed against the chest (defense), and head and chin dropping (malevolence / hostility) [23]. 2. Look for matching. In order to make the real opinion from the body language signs, you should monitor sign groups (sets) and compare them with verbal language. Allan and Barbara Pease note: "studies have shown that non-verbal signs are nearlyfive times more effectivethantheverbalchannel [23]. Verbal and body language discrepancy can be illustrated by the following example: Let's say, when in gallery the politician is boasting passionate that he is attentive and supporting youth ideas, but his hands are crossed on the chest (defense), chin lowered (adverse/hostile), will you believe in him? And if he's trying to convince you that he is a good and caring, but just hitting the tribune by sharp karate blows"[23].


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We emphasize our language statements both in words and body language. Stressing the importance of the words we invoke the voice changing height and timbre, or repeat. When we speak we use our body: eyebrows, head, hands, arms, torso, legs and feet - to emphasize words that are important to us or for which we want to give an emotional tone. If the people speak honestly, emphasis characteristics are considered to be a universal body language. The brains are involved in conversation in such a way and communicate to others that we are confident in your own words. Conversely, if the brain does not support our words, in our talking perform is weak emphasis of movements or we do not make them at all. Lying people do not emphasize the words. The liars use cognitive functions of the brain to decide what to say and how to cheat, but rarely think of how to present the lies. When a person tries to invent falsehood to the truth similar response, emphasis signs seem artificial and too late; rarely highlights the words you need, usually highlighting a relatively minor things [21], [13]. Trying to figure out what's true and what lies, the body language can be even more accurate and useful than words. People are accustomed by talking to use hands, to emphasize their claims with their gestures, from forgetfulness even begin to thump the table with hands trying to give more weight to their words. Other highlights the words with fingertips - they are gestures or touching objects. Movements of the hands complement honestly spoken words, expressing thoughts and feelings. In order to highlight the message eyebrows are lifted and eyes are extended [21], [20], [12].
And conversely: people highlights too little their own words or they believe poorly in what they say, when their hands are behind (when talking guise of the mouth), or teaches anything with indifference on his face. When people do not believe in what they say, they control their facial expressions, limit their movements, performing other dissociation actions. People lying too often pretend to be that they are thinking, for example, they support the chin with the palm, gently strokes their cheeks, as if thinking what to answer; this behavior is exactly the opposite to honest people's behavior. If a person is lying, he needs time to evaluate what he said and how his words would be understood [21], [20], [12]. 3. Associate gestures with the situation. All gestures should be evaluated according to the situation, according to context. For example, the hands crossed on the chest in business negotiation situation can mean "defense”, distancing from the opponent's ideas taught. The hands crossed on his chest of the person waiting at a bus stop in the cold winter, mean something quite different: he is trying to keep his body warm. As pointed out by Joseph Messinger: ” 80% meaning of your body movements or postures exchange, exposed by the determining context, or they are irrelevant gesticulation, with the exception of multiple movements, always carried out in a permanent or, alternatively, no matter what the context. This means that before evaluating or explaining a certain movement you have to think" [18].
For body language studies in business negotiations and business talks are relevant remarks of Samy Molcho that: "everything, what people feel ... reflects their bodies language very accurate. As sentimental state causes us to be open or close and are evoked such feelings as fear, preparations for the escape response, evasiveness, moves away from the coveted receptive (open to the world around), and natural behavior. All the negative feelings that are invading us-we feel underestimated, insult, because the other person is not sufficiently interested in us or what we say - all these grievances and creates in us the energy barriers. This, unfortunately, means that our open environment behavior from this moment is severely impaired. The flow of information is terminated between the sender and the recipient. So, I refer to the fact that success depends on the ability to find an emotional access to your partner or other person, and to maintain this connection because my personal success depends on whether I am able to motivate people. But, this mechanism will work only if I really will understand and will take seriously not only personal goals, but also the other people's aspirations. So, to force somebody to believe that if he would unite with me, he will fulfill all his desires and expectations. In short: in order to "conquer" other people, you have to transform them, to try to find out their wishes and hottest desires, try to get what kind of things can motivate, what would encourage them to act, and what - could disturb their activities. If you got this from

International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences Vol. 62


them, so only remains to ask ourselves: what about remove the activities, aggravating disturbances, that they could stride with me, shoulder to shoulder by the road leading to success " [19].
1. In business communication, business negotiations, business meetings, as well as in human communication in general, is important not only transferred information by the content of the words, but also how those words were said, what nuances of voice were used. In addition, no less are important the body signals, which negotiators in negotiations consciously or unconsciously send each other. Monitoring the negotiator’s physical changes of the body, gestures, can be produced more or less realistic impression on his being, mood, feelings, thoughts, expectations, intentions, and their changes. This can be useful for choice of the impact measures on other side of the negotiation and its implementation. 2. Body language signals in business communication, business negotiations, business meetings are important in several respects: - they show the interviewer’s, the opponent's physical and emotional state as well as its development, - they complement, reinforce or weaken the oral language, - enables those who can read nonverbal communication signs more or less accurately to determine whether there is a truth said in oral language. 3. A good negotiator must consciously manage his non-verbal language in order to understand what he shows to his opponent, to know and understand the opponent's body language, to note when the verbal and body language conflicts with each other, when - are the same. It is very important impulses that can drastically change the course of the negotiations and the final outcome of the negotiations. 4. The ability to understand the other person’s, opponent's body language – to imagine what he is thinking, what does he feel, how responsive he is, what does he promises to do - in business communication, business negotiations and business talks are very important. To develop this ability is needed to put a lot of effort: to absorb the theoretical framework and to apply them into practice. Body language is very informative and sends for the interviewer, opponent many signals, but clearly it is difficult to interpret, and sometimes it is not possible or desirable. The accuracy and the quality of the interpretation depend on the knowledge and interpretive practice. 5. Body language or nonverbal communication involves a lot of human body signs. In nonverbal body language there are very much important things: human posture, dress, accessories, gestures, eye contact, facial expressions, smile, voice intonation, laughter, eye contact, eye signs, the distance between communicators, touch, clap, dance, and physiological responses - sweating palms, forehead, paleness, resulting in acute facial, flushing, etc. The part of nonverbal communication signs is being sent consciously (natural or play signs, signals), and the other part of the body signals is emitted into the environment unconsciously when reaction to the information received is immediate, instinctive and without thinking.
[1] Ambady N., Weisbuch M. 2010. Nonverbal behavior. – In Handbook of Social Psychology/S.T. Fiske, D.T. Gilbert, G. Lindzey (Eds.). Hoboken, N.T.: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., pp. 464-497.
[2] Ambady N., Rosental R. 1998. Nonverbal Communication. – In Encyclopedia of Mental Health, Academic Press, pp.775-782.
[3] Ambady N., Hallahan M., Rosental R. 1995. On Judging and Being Judged Accurately in ZeroAcquaintance Situations, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69 (3): 518-529.
[4] Ambady N., Rosental R. 1993. Half a Minute: Predicting Teacher Evaluations From Thin Slices Nonverbal Behavior and Physical Attractiveness, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64 (3): 431-441.
BehaviorPeoplePersonBody LanguageOpponent