Operators of Small Natural Gas Systems - Pipeline and

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Operators of Small Natural Gas Systems - Pipeline and

Transcript Of Operators of Small Natural Gas Systems - Pipeline and

Guidance Manual for
Operators of Small Natural Gas Systems
January 2017
US Department of Transportation Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Office of Pipeline Safety

TO THE READER
The U.S. Department of Transportation’s (DOT) Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) promotes the safe transportation of natural gas by pipeline. This guidance manual for operators of small natural gas systems is part of our commitment to pipeline safety. This manual was developed to provide an overview of pipeline compliance responsibilities under the federal pipeline safety regulations. It is designed for the nontechnically trained person who operates a master meter system, a small municipal system, or small independent system. The Federal Government recognizes that many of the safety regulations are written in technical language that addresses generic requirements for both large and small natural gas systems. This manual attempts to simplify the technical language of the regulations. For certain critical regulations, this manual provides details of methods of operation and selection of materials that will satisfy the pipeline safety regulations. However, this is often only one of several allowable options. This manual provides a set of examples that operators of small natural gas systems can use to meet the minimum requirements of the pipeline safety regulations. For example, requirements for pressure testing vary throughout the pipeline safety regulations. The test pressure used in this manual is usually 100 pounds per square inch to provide clarity and consistency to small operators unfamiliar with the intricacies of natural gas pipeline operations. The operator is referred to 49 CFR Part 192 for additional details and other options for reaching and maintaining compliance. Our aim is to provide basic information to operators of small natural gas distribution and master meter systems to ensure compliance with the federal gas pipeline safety regulations. It is hoped that this document will assist operators in achieving and maintaining a safe and efficient natural gas system. The result will enhance public safety – the essential goal of the Office of Pipeline Safety.
Alan K. Mayberry Associate Administrator for Pipeline Safety
Revised – January, 2017

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This guidance manual was revised by the APGA Security and Integrity Foundation (SIF) under a cooperative agreement with the U.S. DOT. The manual relies on sources representing the best opinion on the subject at the time of publication. It should not, however, be assumed that all acceptable safety measures and procedures are mentioned in this manual. The reader is referred to the Code of Federal Regulations (49 CFR Parts 190-199 and Part 40) for the complete pipeline safety requirements.
PHMSA gratefully acknowledges the contributions of the many individuals and organizations who contributed their time and expertise to this manual. Most especially, it is a product of close cooperation with the National Association of Pipeline Safety Representatives (NAPSR).
The advisory group involved in the revision of this manual included: John Erickson, APGA SIF, Project Manager Glynn Blanton, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) David E. Bull, ViaData Bill DeFoor, Municipal Gas Authority of Georgia William Donley, Payne Environmental Services David Hraha, Iowa Association of Municipal Utilities Chet Kokoszka, New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission Don Ledversis, Rhode Island Public Utilities Commission Gerry Lee, APGA SIF L Lognion, Heath Consultants Joe Molloy, Colorado Department of Regulatory Agencies Roy Montemarano, Heath Consultants G. C. Morris, Vermont Department of Public Service Jerry Palo, California Public Utilities Commission Rod Parcel, Iowa Association of Municipal Utilities Rudy Parcel, Iowa Association of Municipal Utilities Judy Ramsey, Alabama Public Service Commission Terry Roach, Carrollton Utilities, KY Mike Sasser, Defuniak Springs Natural Gas, FL Phil Sher, Phil Sher Associates Matt Smith, Illinois Commerce Commission Michael Smith, New Mexico Public Regulation Commission Nathan Solem, South Dakota Public Utilities Commission Larry Sorensen, Iowa Utilities Board Kevin Speicher, New York Department of Public Service Kan Wai Tong, California Public Utilities Commission
Revised – January, 2017

The revision and publication of this manual is an example of constructive partnership among government, the pipeline industry and industry and professional organizations. Sponsor Approval: Alan K. Mayberry PHMSA Associate Administrator for Pipeline Safety This document may be reprinted without permission from PHMSA. Any comments, suggestions or revisions should be sent to the Director, PHMSA Inspector Training & Qualifications, (PHP-70) 3700 S. MacArthur Boulevard, Suite B, Oklahoma City, OK 73179.
Revised – January, 2017

GUIDANCE MANUAL FOR
OPERATORS OF SMALL NATURAL GAS SYSTEMS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

To The Reader Acknowledgements

CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW

Introduction

I-1

Overview

I-2

CHAPTER II: REGULATORS AND RELIEF DEVICES BASIC CONCEPTS Pressure Pressure and Force Flow and Throttling PRESSURE REGULATION SOME BASIC NAMES AND TERMS OVERPRESSURE PROTECTION Pressure Relief Monitor Regulating Automatic Shutoff INSPECTION AND TESTING OF REGULATING AND RELIEF DEVICES

II-1 II-1 II-4 II-5 II-5 II-8 II-11 II-13 II-14 II-16 II-18

CHAPTER III: CORROSION CONTROL

FEDERAL REQUIREMENTS

III-1

Procedures and Qualifications

III-1

Techniques for Compliance

III-1

Corrosion Control Requirements for Pipelines Installed After July 31, 1971

III-2

Corrosion Control Requirements for Pipelines Installed Before August 1, 1971 III-2

Coating Requirements

III-3

Examination of Exposed Pipe

III-3

Criteria for Cathodic Protection

III-4

Monitoring

III-4

Electrical Isolation

III-4

Test Points

III-4

Internal Corrosion Inspection

III-5

Atmospheric Corrosion

III-5

Remedial Measures

III-5

Graphitization of Cast Iron

III-5

Records

III-5

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TOC-1

FUNDAMENTALS OF CORROSION PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES OF CATHODIC PROTECTION
Types of Cathodic Protection Criteria for Cathodic Protection Coatings COMMON CAUSES OF CORROSION IN GAS PIPING SYSTEMS
CHAPTER IV: LEAK DETECTION AND ODORIZATION LEAK DETECTION Methods Of Detecting A Leak Description Of Leak Detection Equipment RECOMMENDED METHOD FOR SURFACE GAS DETECTION SURVEY Records Follow-Up Inspection ODORIZATION Types Of Odorants Monitoring Techniques Odorization Equipment
CHAPTER V: UNACCOUNTED FOR GAS Unmetered Gas Gas Measurement Issues Significance of UAF
CHAPTER VI: REPAIRS AND NEW CONSTRUCTION Planning Ahead Excavation Emergency Excavation Precautions to Avoid Damage Reporting Damage Mandatory Participation in One-Call Centers
PIPE INSTALLATION, REPAIR, AND REPLACEMENT Metallic Pipe Installation Plastic Pipe Installation Repair Methods: Plastic and Metal
MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT FOR USE IN NATURAL GAS SYSTEMS Pipe Valves Flanges and Flange Accessories Regulators and Overpressure Protection Equipment
WELDING REQUIREMENTS COMMON CONSTRUCTION PRACTICES
Plastic Pipe installation concerns – Brittle like Fractures

III-6 III-7 III-14 III-18 III-19 III-21
IV-1 IV-2 IV-4 IV-9 IV-10 IV-10 IV-11 IV-11 IV-11 IV-13
V-1 V-2 V-4
VI-1 VI-2 VI-2 VI-2 VI-3 VI-3 VI-3 VI-4 VI-5 VI-19 VI-22 VI-22 VI-25 VI-25 VI-25 VI-27 VI-31 VI-42

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TOC-2

CHAPTER VII: SERVICE LINES, CUSTOMER METERS AND REGULATOR SETS

Customer Meters and Regulators: Location

VII-1

Customer Meters and Regulators: Protection from Damage

VII-3

Customer Meters Installations: Operating Pressure

VII-3

Service Lines: Location of Valves

VII-3

Excess Flow Valves

VII-4

Service Line Location

VII-5

Common Problems at Service Riser and House Regulators

VII-9

Discontinuing Service to a Customer

VII-9

CHAPTER VIII: PLANS AND REPORTS REQUIRED BY THE FEDERAL

GOVERNMENT

PLANS REQUIRED BY THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT

VIII-1

Operations and Maintenance Plans

VIII-2

Emergency Plans

VIII-9

Public Awareness

VIII-15

Distribution Integrity Management

VIII-21

Operator Qualification

VIII-21

Anti-Drug And Alcohol Misuse Prevention Plans

VIII-21

Control Room Management Plan

VIII-21

REPORTS REQUIRED BY THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT

VIII-22

Incident Reports

VIII-22

Annual Reports

VIII-23

Mechanical Fitting Failure Report

VIII-23

Safety-Related Condition Reports

VIII-23

CHAPTER IX: INTEGRITY MANAGEMENT DISTRIBUTION INTEGRITY MANAGEMENT Know Your System Identify Threats Evaluate and Rank Risk Implement Risk Reduction Measures Measure Performance, Monitor Results and Evaluate Effectiveness Periodically Assess the Effectiveness of the Program Report Results Recordkeeping DIMP Resources TRANSMISSION INTEGRITY MANAGEMENT Potential Impact Circle High Consequence Areas Integrity Management Plan and Program Baseline Assessment Remedial Action

IX-1 IX-2 IX-2 IX-3 IX-4 IX-5 IX-6 IX-6 IX-6 IX-7 IX-8 IX-8 IX-9 IX-10 IX-11 IX-12

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TOC-3

APPENDIX A: GLOSSARY AND ACRONYMS APPENDIX B: SAMPLE FORMS APPENDIX C: STATE PIPELINE SAFETY AGENCIES

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TOC-4

CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW
This chapter contains a simplified description of the pipeline safety requirements. The complete text can be found in 49 CFR Part 192.
INTRODUCTION
Public Law 104-304 requires the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) to develop and enforce minimum safety regulations for the transportation of gases by pipeline. The safety regulations became effective in 1970, and are published in Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Parts 190, 191, 192, and 199. The Office of Pipeline Safety of DOT’s Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) is charged with their enforcement.
The gas pipeline safety regulations apply to natural gas systems and operators of natural gas master meter systems. The pipeline safety regulations require operators of natural gas systems to: deliver gas safely and reliably to customers; provide training and written instruction for employees; establish written procedures to minimize the hazards resulting from natural gas pipeline emergencies; and, keep records of inspection and testing based on suggested forms found in Appendix B.
Additionally, operators of all natural gas systems, except master meter systems, must test employees in safety-sensitive positions for prohibited drugs and alcohol and provide an employee assistance program. The requirements for drug and alcohol testing of pipeline employees are found in 49 CFR Part 199, which incorporates the overall OPS drug testing requirements found in 49 CFR Part 40.
Natural gas operators who do not comply with the safety regulations may be subject to civil penalties, compliance orders, or both. If safety problems are severe, a "Corrective Action Order" may be issued by OPS. This could result in the shutdown of the system.
State agencies may enforce pipeline safety regulations under certification by OPS. The state agency is allowed to adopt additional or more stringent safety regulations for intrastate pipeline transportation as long as such regulations are compatible with the federal minimum regulations. If a state agency is not certified, however, the DOT retains jurisdiction over intrastate pipeline systems.
Operators should check with the pipeline safety agency in their state (Appendix C) to determine:
 Whether a state agency has safety jurisdiction;  Whether the state agency has pipeline safety requirements that exceed the federal
regulations;
 The inspection and enforcement procedures of the state agency.

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I-1

OVERVIEW
The natural gas pipeline industry consists of transmission and distribution systems. These pipeline systems can be simple or complicated, however, all gas pipeline companies are held to the same safety standards.
FIGURE I-1 represents one of the many possible configurations of natural gas transmission and distribution systems. The natural gas:
 Flows from the producing wells into gathering line(s).  Through gathering lines and compressors or compressor stations.  After the compressor(s), through transmission lines.  To a processing plant where the heavier hydrocarbons, such as propane, butane, ethane or
natural gasoline, which are initially components of the gas stream, are removed.
 Through the transmission line and additional compressors.  From the compressors to underground storage or a liquefied natural gas (LNG) plant
(where natural gas is liquefied by reducing its temperature to - 260 °F), or directly to a city gate station or master meter system.
FIGURE I-2 is an example of a distribution system that consists of mains and services operating at different pressures, which are controlled by regulators. Often, industrial customers receive gas service through high-pressure distribution mains. The small commercial and the residential gas systems can be fed from either low- or high-pressure distribution systems.

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OperatorsGas SystemsJanuaryRegulationsPipeline Safety Regulations