Prostate Adenocarcinoma - Professional Pathology Services

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Prostate Adenocarcinoma - Professional Pathology Services

Transcript Of Prostate Adenocarcinoma - Professional Pathology Services

Patient Education Series provided by Professional Pathology Services, PC
Prostate Cancer
Prostate Adenocarcinoma

What is Prostate Adenocarcinoma?
Prostate Adenocarcinoma accounts for 95 percent of all prostate cancers. It starts in the prostate gland and, if not treated successfully at an early stage, can spread to other parts of the body. Other than skin cancer, Prostate Adenocarcinoma is the most common cancer in American men, with 185,000 cases diagnosed each year.

Who is most likely to have Prostate Adenocarcinoma?
Prostate Adenocarcinoma becomes more common in men over age 50. Eighty percent of prostate cancer cases occur in men over age 65. African-American men have an above average risk. A family history of prostate cancer and a high-fat diet also increase risk.

Prostate Adenocarci-noma can be charac-terized by changes tothe size,
shape or tex-ture of the prostate.

What characterizes Prostate Adenocarcinoma?

Prostate Adenocarcinoma can be characterized by changes to the size, shape, or texture of the prostate.

Physicians can sometimes detect these changes through a digital rectal exam (DRE). In addition, a

Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) exam detects the level of PSA, a

Definitions

protein produced by prostate cells, in the blood. Higher PSA levels

indicate the possibility of cancer. While most prostate cancers do

Prostate:

not present symptoms, urinary abnormalities (such as increased

Normal prostate cells.

A walnut-sized gland

frequency/urgency, decreased stream, or impotence) can be associated with prostate cancer.

located in the male reproductive system, just below the bladder and in front of the rectum.

How does the pathologist make a diagnosis?
If the results of a DRE and/or PSA are not within the normal range, a biopsy will be performed. In this procedure, the primary care physician will obtain multiple thin cores of tissue for the pathologist to examine under the microscope. Another way for the pathologist to make a diagnosis of prostate cancer, though

Adenocarcinoma:

less common, is by examining pieces (chips) of prostate tissue, which are removed from the prostate

A type of cancerous,or

during a transurethral resection. This process is done for enlargement of the prostate gland (benign

malignant, tumor that

prostatic hypertrophy, or BPH). Pathologists can diagnose prostate cancer in whole prostate glands that

originates in a gland or

are removed during a radical prostatectomy, a surgical treatment of prostate cancer. Finally, pathologists

glandular structure.

can diagnose prostate cancer that has spread by examining cells and tissue from other body sites.

Invasive, Infiltrating: Capable of spreading to other parts of the body.
Malignant: Cancerous and capable of spreading.
Pathologist: A physician who examines tissues and fluids to diagnose disease in order to assist in making treatment decisions.

What else does the pathologist look for?
In all prostate tissue samples, a Gleason grade is assigned by the pathologist. This important number, which ranges from 2 (best) to 10 (worst), is a strong measure of how aggressive the prostate cancer is and can be used to help determine prognosis and type of therapy. Physicians often look at a combination of your Gleason grade, clinical stage, and serum PSA level (how fast your PSA is rising) in deciding on the best treatment. For needle biopsies and prostate chips, the pathologist will also report the amount of tissue involved that is cancerous and this finding can influence treatment. For radical prostatectomy tissue, pathologists define the stage or extent of the cancer and whether the cancer is at the tissue edge (margins). These findings are very important for prognosis and will influence the decision as to whether additional treatment is needed after surgery. Stage in the radical prostatectomy can be 2 (better) or 3 (worse), with spread into seminal vesicles (structures attached to the back of the prostate) or lymph nodes removed before or during surgery indicating a worse prognosis. Physicians also perform clinical staging tests (radiology or x-ray studies), usually before surgery, to try to tell if the cancer has spread.

Lymphatic: Relating to lymph glands.

For more information, go to: www.skincancer.org (Skin Cancer Foundation) or www.nlm.nih.gov (National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health). Type the keywords Basal Cell Carcinoma or Skin Cancer into the search box.

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© 2011 College of American Pathologists Reproduced for patients with permission from CAP.
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