Recent Trends in Mean Scores and Characteristics of Test

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Recent Trends in Mean Scores and Characteristics of Test

Transcript Of Recent Trends in Mean Scores and Characteristics of Test

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Recent Trends in Mean Scores and Characteristics of Test-Takers on Praxis II Licensure Tests

Recent Trends in Mean Scores and Characteristics of Test-Takers on Praxis II Licensure Tests
Prepared by: Drew H. Gitomer
Yi Qi Educational Testing Service (ETS)
Principal Investigator Drew H. Gitomer, ETS
Prepared for: U.S. Department of Education Office of Planning, Evaluation and Policy Development Policy and Program Studies Service
2010

This report was prepared for the U.S. Department of Education under Contract Number ED-08-PO0730 with the Educational Testing Service. Elizabeth Eisner served as contracting officer’s representative for this report. The views expressed herein do not necessarily represent the positions or policies of the Department of Education. No official endorsement by the U.S. Department of Education is intended or should be inferred.
U.S. Department of Education Arne Duncan Secretary
Office of Planning, Evaluation and Policy Development Carmel Martin Assistant Secretary
Policy and Program Studies Service Alan Ginsburg Director
April 2010
This report is in the public domain. Authorization to reproduce it in whole or in part is granted. While permission to reprint this publication is not necessary, the suggested citation is: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Planning, Evaluation and Policy Development, Policy and Program Studies Service, Recent Trends in Mean Scores and Characteristics of Test-Takers on Praxis II Licensure Tests. Washington, D.C., 2010.
This publication is also available at the Department’s Web site at: www.ed.gov/about/offices/ list/opepd/ppss/reports.html#tq.
The United States Department of Education asked the Educational Testing Service (ETS) to conduct this study because ETS was in a unique position to conduct these analyses at the lowest cost to the government. ETS maintains all of the Praxis II testing data from all states that administer the Praxis II exams. ETS has permission from the states to conduct analyses on these data as long as the analyses involve the aggregation of the test scores from multiple states and do not identify the names of individual states. In order for another research firm to obtain the data and conduct a comparable analysis, another firm would have had to seek and obtain permission from each state to use that state’s Praxis data. Moreover, given the extent of this study, any other research firm would have been required to obtain approval for the collection of data from the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). This process of obtaining OMB approval, including the period for public comment on the information requests, would take at least 120 days, and involves the additional cost of preparing an extensive OMB clearance package.
On request, this publication is available in alternate formats, such as Braille, large print or computer diskette. For more information, contact the Department’s Alternate Format Center at 202-260-0852 or 202-260-0818.

CONTENTS
List of Exhibits ……………………………………………………………………………… v Acknowledgments …………………………………………………………………………… xiii Executive Summary ………………………………………………………………………… xv I. Introduction ………………………………………………………………………… 1 II. Methodology ………………………………………………………………………… 7
Selecting States and Years ……………………………………………………….. 7 Determining Passing Status ……………………………………………………… 9 Candidate Data …………………………………………………………………… 10 III. Findings ……………………………………………………………………………… 13 A. Test 0012—Elementary Education: Pedagogy …………………………….. 15 B. Test 0014—Elementary Education Content Knowledge …………………... 22 C. Test 0041—English Language, Literature, and Composition:
Content Knowledge …………………………………………… 30 D. Test 0043—English Language, Literature, and Composition: Pedagogy ….. 37 E. Test 0061—Mathematics: Content Knowledge ……………………………. 42 F. Test 0065—Mathematics: Pedagogy ……………………………………….. 50 G. Test 0069—Middle School Mathematics: Content Knowledge ……………. 55 H. Test 0431—General Science, Part 1: Content Knowledge …………………. 62 I. Test 0571—Earth and Space Sciences: Content Knowledge ……………….. 67 J. The Relationship of State Passing Standards to Mean Passing Scores
and Passing Rates ……………………………………………… 72 IV. Summary ……………………………………………………………………………… 81
Findings ……………………………………………………………………………. 81 V. Conclusions …………………………………………………………………………… 85 References …………………………………………………………………………………….. 89 Appendix A—Initial Year of Praxis Test Use by State for Each Assessment …………… 91 Appendix B—Passing Score Established by Each State for Each Assessment by Year .. 101 Appendix C—Praxis Registration Form—Background Information …………………….111
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EXHIBITS

Executive Summary

Exhibit ES.1 Mean Praxis Scores (median) and Standard Deviation by Test by Passing Status Across Years ……………………………………………… xvii

Exhibit ES.2 Mean Praxis Scores of Test-takers by Passing Status—Mathematics: Content Knowledge ……………………………………………………… xviii

Exhibit ES.3 Distribution of Scores in 2006 for Mathematics: Content Knowledge ……………………………………………………………….. xix

Exhibit ES.4 Mean Praxis Scores of Test-takers by Passing Status and Teaching

Experience—Mathematics: Content Knowledge ……………………….

xxi

Exhibit ES.5 Study Summary of Trends in Scores for Those Who Pass ………………. xxii

II. Methodology

Exhibit 1 Selection of States and Year Ranges ……………………………………..

9

III. Findings

A. Test 0012—Elementary Education: Pedagogy

Exhibit 2 Test-taker Characteristics by Year—Elementary Education: Pedagogy ….. 15

Exhibit 3

Mean Praxis Scores (SD) of Those Who Pass by Year—Elementary Education: Pedagogy ……………………………………………………….. 16

Exhibit 4

Mean Praxis Scores of Test-takers by Gender, Passing Status and Teaching Experience—Elementary Education: Pedagogy ………………… 17

Exhibit 5

Mean Praxis Scores of Test-takers by Race and Ethnicity, Passing Status and Teaching Experience—Elementary Education: Pedagogy ……………. 18

Exhibit 6 Distribution of Scores in 2005 for Elementary Education: Pedagogy ……… 19

Exhibit 7 Mean Praxis Scores of Test-takers by Passing Status and Teaching Experience—Elementary Education: Pedagogy ………………………….. 20

Exhibit 8 Regression Results—Elementary Education: Pedagogy ………………….. 21

B. Test 0014—Elementary Education Content Knowledge

Exhibit 9

Test-taker Characteristics by Year—Elementary Education Content Knowledge …………………………………………………………………… 22

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Exhibit 10 Exhibit 11 Exhibit 12 Exhibit 13 Exhibit 14 Exhibit 15
C. Exhibit 16 Exhibit 17 Exhibit 18
Exhibit 19
Exhibit 20 Exhibit 21
Exhibit 22

Mean Praxis Scores (SD) of Those Who Pass by Year—Elementary Education Content Knowledge ……………………………………………… 23
Mean Praxis Scores of Test-takers by Gender, Passing Status and Teaching Experience—Elementary Education: Content Knowledge ……… 24
Mean Praxis Scores of Test-takers by Race, Ethnicity, Passing Status and Teaching Experience—Elementary Education: Content Knowledge …. 25
Distribution of Scores in 2006 for Elementary Education: Content Knowledge …………………………………………………………………… 26
Mean Praxis Scores of Test-takers by Passing Status and Teaching Experience—Elementary Education: Content Knowledge ……… 28
Regression Results—Elementary Education: Content Knowledge ………… 29
Test 0041—English Language, Literature, and Composition: Content Knowledge
Test-taker Characteristics by Year—English Language, Literature, and Composition: Content Knowledge …………………………………………… 30
Mean Praxis Scores (SD) of Those Who Pass by Year—English Language, Literature, and Composition: Content Knowledge ………………. 31
Mean Praxis Scores of Test-takers by Gender, Passing Status and Teaching Experience—English Language, Literature, and Composition: Content Knowledge …………………………………………………………… 32
Mean Praxis Scores of Test-takers by Race, Ethnicity, Passing Status and Teaching Experience—English Language, Literature, and Composition: Content Knowledge …………………………………………… 33
Distribution of Scores in 2006 for English Language, Literature, and Composition: Content Knowledge …………………………………………… 34
Mean Praxis Scores of Test-takers by Passing Status and Teaching Experience—English Language, Literature, and Composition: Content Knowledge …………………………………………………………………… 35
Regression Results—English Language, Literature, and Composition: Content Knowledge …………………………………………………………… 36

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D. Exhibit 23 Exhibit 24 Exhibit 25 Exhibit 26
Exhibit 27 E.
Exhibit 28 Exhibit 29 Exhibit 30 Exhibit 31 Exhibit 32 Exhibit 33 Exhibit 34
F. Exhibit 35 Exhibit 36

Test 0043—English Language, Literature, and Composition: Pedagogy
Test-taker Characteristics by Year—English Language, Literature, and Composition: Pedagogy ………………………………………………… 37
Mean Praxis Scores (SD) of Those Who Pass by Year—English Language, Literature, and Composition: Pedagogy ………………………… 38
Distribution of Scores in 2006 for English Language, Literature, and Composition: Pedagogy ……………………………………………………… 39
Mean Praxis Scores of Test-takers by Passing Status and Teaching Experience—English Language, Literature, and Composition: Pedagogy …………………………………………………………………….. 40
Regression Results—English Language, Literature, and Composition: Pedagogy …………………………………………………………………….. 41
Test 0061—Mathematics: Content Knowledge
Test-taker Characteristics by Year—Mathematics: Content Knowledge …………………………………………………………………… 42
Mean Praxis Scores (SD) of Those Who Pass by Year—Mathematics: Content Knowledge ………………………………………………………….. 43
Mean Praxis Scores of Test-takers by Gender, Passing Status and Teaching Experience—Mathematics: Content Knowledge ………………… 44
Mean Praxis Scores of Test-takers by Race, Ethnicity, Passing Status and Teaching Experience—Mathematics: Content Knowledge …………… 45
Distribution of Scores in 2006 for Mathematics: Content Knowledge ………………………………………………………………….. 46
Mean Praxis Scores of Test-takers by Passing Status and Teaching Experience—Mathematics: Content Knowledge ………………………….. 47
Regression Results for 0061 Mathematics: Content Knowledge …………… 49
Test 0065—Mathematics: Pedagogy
Test-taker Characteristics by Year—Mathematics: Pedagogy ……………... 50
Mean Praxis Scores (SD) of Those Who Pass by Year— Mathematics: Pedagogy ……………………………………………………… 51
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Exhibit 37 Exhibit 38 Exhibit 39
G. Exhibit 40 Exhibit 41 Exhibit 42
Exhibit 43
Exhibit 44 Exhibit 45 Exhibit 46
H. Exhibit 47 Exhibit 48 Exhibit 49 Exhibit 50 Exhibit 51

Distribution of Scores in 2006 for Mathematics: Pedagogy ………………… 52
Mean Praxis Scores of Test-takers by Passing Status and Teaching Experience—Mathematics: Pedagogy ……………………………………… 53
Regression Results—Mathematics: Pedagogy ……………………………... 54
Test 0069—Middle School Mathematics: Content Knowledge
Test-taker Characteristics by Year—Middle School Mathematics: Content Knowledge ………………………………………………………….. 55
Mean Praxis Scores (SD) of Those Who Pass by Year—Middle School Mathematics: Content Knowledge ………………………………….. 56
Mean Praxis Scores of Test-takers by Gender, Passing Status and Teaching Experience—Middle School Mathematics: Content Knowledge …………………………………………………………………… 57
Mean Praxis Scores of Test-takers by Race, Ethnicity, Passing Status and Teaching Experience—Middle School Mathematics: Content Knowledge ………………………………………………………….. 58
Distribution of Scores in 2006 for Middle School Mathematics: Content Knowledge ………………………………………………………….. 59
Mean Praxis Scores of Test-takers by Passing Status and Teaching Experience—Middle School Mathematics: Content Knowledge ………….. 60
Regression Results—Middle School Mathematics: Content Knowledge ………………………………………………………………….. 61
Test 0431—General Science, Part 1: Content Knowledge
Test-taker Characteristics by Year—General Science, Part 1: Content Knowledge …………………………………………………………………... 62
Mean Praxis Scores (SD) of Those Who Pass by Year—General Science, Part 1: Content Knowledge ………………………………………… 63
Distribution of Scores in 2006 for General Science, Part 1: Content Knowledge …………………………………………………………………… 64
Mean Praxis Scores of Test-takers by Passing Status and Teaching Experience—General Science, Part 1: Content Knowledge ……………….. 65
Regression Results—General Science, Part 1: Content Knowledge ……….. 66

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Praxis ScoresStatusLiteratureCompositionScores