Testing The Factor Structure Of The Behavior Rating Inventory

Preparing to load PDF file. please wait...

0 of 0
100%
Testing The Factor Structure Of The Behavior Rating Inventory

Transcript Of Testing The Factor Structure Of The Behavior Rating Inventory

The Pennsylvania State University The Graduate School College of Education
TESTING THE FACTOR STRUCTURE OF THE BEHAVIOR RATING INVENTORY OF EXECUTIVE FUNCTION (BRIEF) PARENT FORM USING A MIXED CLINICAL SAMPLE OF
YOUTH
A Dissertation in School Psychology
by Maria C. Smith
© 2013 Maria C. Smith
Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of
Doctor of Philosophy
December 2013

ii The dissertation of Maria C. Smith was reviewed and approved* by the following:
Beverly J. Vandiver Associate Professor of Education Dissertation Adviser Co-Chair of Committee
Barbara A. Schaefer Associate Professor of Education Co-Chair of Committee
Lynn S. Liben Distinguished Professor of Psychology
Hoi K. Suen Distinguished Professor of Education
Kathleen J. Bieschke Head, Department of Educational Psychology, Counseling, and Special Education Professor of Counseling Psychology
*Signatures are on file in the Graduate School

iii
ABSTRACT
Executive functions (EF) are cognitive processes that are controlled and coordinated during complex tasks (Monsell, 1996). EF has become increasingly popular in the context of clinical evaluation, and, more recently, in the school setting. If children are inadequate at performing basic classroom functions, such as inhibiting responses, regulating behavior, or predicting outcomes, their academic success is likely to be compromised (Bull & Scerif, 2001; Palfrey et al., 1985). The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF; Gioia et al., 2000) is a behavior-rating scale designed to assess the behavioral characteristics related to executivefunction deficits of youth in school and home environments. However, there continues to be debate regarding the current two-factor, eight-scale factor structure of the BRIEF-Parent form when applied in a mixed clinical (or school) sample of school-age youth. This study examined the factor structure of scores from the BRIEF-Parent form. Ratings were provided by 371 parents or guardians of children living in Western Pennsylvania whose children had been referred for psychoeducational evaluation. The original model (i.e., 2-factor, 8-scale) currently employed in the instrument was examined and compared to six alternative models. Results were analyzed through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Findings indicated that in a mixed clinical sample of youth four of the seven models showed a good fit to the data (e.g., 2-factor, 8-scale CFI = .933, SRMR = .049; 3-factor, 9-scale - CFI = .956, SRMR = .041). Although there only were small differences between the models, RMSEA was still above the recommended cutoff (i.e., > .08), indicating some potential misfit in all models. Comparisons of the models indicated that the 3-factor, 9-scale model fit the scores slightly better. These findings provide support for the use of the two-factor, eight-scale version, which is the basis for the current BRIEF-Parent

iv form, but competing models fit the data just as well if not better. Thus, the findings also raise questions about the use of the BRIEF-Parent in its present format in the school setting.

v
Table of Contents
List of Figures .............................................................................................................................. viii List of Tables ................................................................................................................................. ix
Acknowledgements ..........................................................................................................................x
INTRODUCTION ...........................................................................................................................1
LITERATURE REVIEW ................................................................................................................7 History of Executive Function .....................................................................................................7 Conceptualization of EF...............................................................................................................9 Theory of unity .......................................................................................................................10 Theory of non-unity................................................................................................................11 Underlying commonality........................................................................................................13 EF as a cultural construct........................................................................................................14 Executive Function in Children..................................................................................................16 Typical EF Development ........................................................................................................16 Role of EF in the learning environment .................................................................................19 The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function .............................................................19 Parent Version ........................................................................................................................20 Description .........................................................................................................................20 Development ......................................................................................................................23 Normative sample ..............................................................................................................25 Evidence for factor structure..............................................................................................25 U.S. versions..................................................................................................................26 Translated versions........................................................................................................30 Summary .......................................................................................................................34 Reliability Evidence of the BRIEF-Parent Form....................................................................36 Internal consistency ...........................................................................................................36 Interrater reliability ............................................................................................................37 Test-retest reliability ..........................................................................................................38 Other Evidence for the Construct Validity of the BRIEF-Parent Form .................................38 Predictive validity ..............................................................................................................38 Convergent validity............................................................................................................40

vi
Independent research of convergent validity .....................................................................44 Convergent validity and specific clinical populations .......................................................47
Discriminant validity .....................................................................................................49 Ecological validity.........................................................................................................52 Social consequences ......................................................................................................54 Summary .................................................................................................................................57 Purpose of the Present Study ..................................................................................................58
METHOD ......................................................................................................................................61 Participants .............................................................................................................................61 Geographical Context .............................................................................................................63 Measures .................................................................................................................................63 Demographic information ..................................................................................................63 BRIEF-Parent form ............................................................................................................63 Procedure ................................................................................................................................65 CFA Guidelines and Models ..................................................................................................66 Models................................................................................................................................66 Fit criteria...........................................................................................................................68
RESULTS ......................................................................................................................................79 Preliminary Analyses..............................................................................................................79 Descriptive statistics ...............................................................................................................79 Confirmatory Factor Analyses ...............................................................................................81 Criteria ........................................................................................................................…...81 Models................................................................................................................................82 Eight-scale models......................................................................................................82 Nine-scale models.......................................................................................................84 Eight- versus nine-scale models .................................................................................88 Subsamples .................................................................................................................90 OVR subsample .....................................................................................................90 Caucasian subsample .............................................................................................92 Mother subsample ..................................................................................................94
DISCUSSION ................................................................................................................................98

vii
Eight-Scale Models of the BRIEF-Parent ..............................................................................98 Nine-Scale Models of the BRIEF-Parent .............................................................................102 Differences in Findings ........................................................................................................104 Reasons for Misfit ................................................................................................................106 Limitations ............................................................................................................................107 Implications ..........................................................................................................................109
Practice .............................................................................................................................109 Future research.................................................................................................................111 Conclusions ...........................................................................................................................113 REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................115 APPENDIX A ..............................................................................................................................135 Glossary of Acronyms .................................................................................................................135
APPENDIX B ..............................................................................................................................137 Items Comprising Scales on BRIEF-Parent form ........................................................................137
APPENDIX C ..............................................................................................................................138 School District Approval .............................................................................................................138
APPENDIX D ..............................................................................................................................139 Licensed Psychologist Approval .................................................................................................139
APPENDIX E ..............................................................................................................................140 Office for Research Protections Correspondence .......................................................................140
APPENDIX F...............................................................................................................................141 Structure Coefficient, Effect Sizes, and Error Terms for Subsamples ........................................141
Standardized Structure Coefficients for BRIEF-Parent for OVR Sample.......................141 Standardized Structure Coefficients for BRIEF-Parent for Caucasian Sample ..............143 Standardized Structure Coefficients for BRIEF-Parent for Mother Rater Sample .........145

viii
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1. Unity-8 Model ....................................................................................................70 Figure 2. 2Original-8 Model ..............................................................................................71 Figure 3. 2Donders-8 Model..............................................................................................72 Figure 4. Unity-9 Model ....................................................................................................73 Figure 5. 2Monitor-9 Model ..............................................................................................74 Figure 6. 3Monitor-9 Model ..............................................................................................75 Figure 7. 4Monitor-9 Model ..............................................................................................76 Figure 8. Standardized Coefficients of 3Monitor-9 Model ...............................................89

ix
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1. Demographic Characteristics of Sample..............................................................62
Table 2. Composition of Models Organized by Factor and Indicator ..............................69
Table 3. Descriptive Statistics of Raw Scale Scores on the BRIEF-Parent Form ............80
Table 4. Summary of Fit Indices of CFA (ML Extraction) Models on the BRIEFParent Form Scale Scores for a Mixed Disability Sample ........................................83
Table 5. Standardized Structure Coefficients for BRIEF-Parent Scales for Mixed Disability Sample Arranged by Model (Maximum Likelihood Extraction) .............85
Table 6. Summary of Fit Indices of CFA (ML) Models of the BRIEF-Parent Form for the OVR Sample ..................................................................................................93
Table 7. Summary of Fit Indices of CFA (ML) Models for the BRIEF-Parent Form Based on the Caucasian Participants ..........................................................................95
Table 8. Summary of Fit Indices of CFA (ML) Models for BRIEF-Parent Form Based on the Mothers as Raters .................................................................................97
Table 9. Root Mean Square Error Approximation (RMSEA) Values Arranged by Model and Study ......................................................................................................106
Table 10. Percentage of Participants Receiving Special Education Services for School Sample and School District by Category .....................................................109

x
Acknowledgements
They say it takes a village to raise a child. Since I’m in the process of raising two young children as well as completing this dissertation, I will venture to say that it also takes a village to complete a dissertation!
Thank you to my committee for helping me to complete this project. Dr. Beverly Vandiver, my adviser, thank you for helping me to finish “lil D.” You kept me calm when my nerves got the best of me, and helped me to realize that I was capable of completing this. Thank you for encouraging me, but for also challenging me. You’ve helped me to turn this into something I’m very proud of. Dr. Barbara Schaefer, thank you for becoming my “last minute co-chair.” You’ve also served as a great role model to me in regards to balancing family and academia. Dr. Hoi Suen, I enjoyed every class that I took from you. Thank you for including me in many interesting projects and for helping me to more fully appreciate (and enjoy) the field of measurement. Dr. Lynn Liben, you have always been extremely encouraging and are such a nice person. I was honored to have such a renowned scholar on my committee. Thank you for your contributions.
Thank you to Dr. Douglas Della Toffalo, who dedicated a lot of time and effort into helping me complete this dissertation. You started off as a great internship supervisor and helped foster my interest in executive function and the subfield of school neuropsychology. I can’t say that I will miss all of those files, but I will always remember the help and kindness you extended to me so that I could complete this goal of finishing this degree. Also thank you to Danielle Wilson for your help with entering data.
This dissertation is dedicated to my family. First and foremost, thank you to my wonderful, supportive, and amazing husband, Chad. You never stopped believing in me and made this journey so much easier and more enjoyable. Thank you for taking over the household and childcare duties on numerous occasions (and weekend trips) so that I had the opportunity to work on this dissertation. I love you, and I know I couldn’t have done this without you. To my kids, “Dr. Mommy” loves you more than I can possibly express. To my son, Drew, who just turned five years old, thank you for your hugs and kisses and for the patience you have demonstrated at such a young age. You are a bright, funny, energetic, and sweet little boy; I am so blessed to have you in my life. To Lia, our little “pumpkin” who is now three years old, you were always my little cheerleader! You are an inquisitive, expressive, sharp, and hilarious little girl. You have been a fighter since the day you were born and you taught me to never give up. To my sister, Caren, thank you for continuing to genuinely care about how things were progressing for me after so many others had stopped asking. I have always looked up to you; you are an amazing sister, mom, and friend. To my sister, Cathy, thank you for your support and encouragement throughout this journey! To my parents, John and Elaine, thank you for serving as role models as to the importance of pursuing my education. To my best friend, Anne, thank you for being an amazing listener and for being there for me through so many ups and downs. To my good friend, Katie, you have always made me laugh throughout our days at Penn State whether that was honking at people or chasing buses. I’m so glad that the program brought us together. To my dear friend, Maria (Big), I appreciate you being such a good friend over the years. Thank you for graciously hosting me the night before my defense and for your help with delivering my final copy on campus. To my cohort members (Katie, Kasey, Sharise, and Terry) thank you being such great people and for helping to make the long hours in CEDAR as well as studying for comps more enjoyable. And to those who I did not mention here, but have helped me over the years to complete this dissertation, a heartfelt “thank you.”
ModelsDissertationCfaFriendIndices