The Effect Of Plasma Spray Variables On The Development Of

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The Effect Of Plasma Spray Variables On The Development Of

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THE EFFECT OF PLASMA SPRAY VARIABLES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC COATINGS
ABDUL RAHIM MAHAMAD SAHAB
UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA JANUARY 2008

THE EFFECT OF PLASMA SPRAY VARIABLES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC COATINGS
By
ABDUL RAHIM MAHAMAD SAHAB
Thesis submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science
JANUARY 2008

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This thesis represents a total of almost twenty four months of effort; it could not have been written and produced without the help of many colleagues and former students. It gives me great pleasure to acknowledge the assistance of the following in the completion and preparation of this MSc thesis:
I am very grateful and thankful to my supervisor, Associate Professor Dr. Luay Bakir Hussain for his enthusiastic support, for his guideline throughout the whole of academic semesters, and for his direct and indirect supervision in completing this thesis. Many thanks as well to my co. supervisor Dr. Fazilah Fazan in guiding and advising any matters occurred in the research study.
Special thank to Dr. Mohd Radzi Hj. Mohd Toff and Dr. Talib Ria Jaafar in allowing me using the Praxair Plasma Spray System at SIRIM Berhad, Kulim Kedah. Many thank to Pn Siti Mariam, Mohd Zakuan Abdullah and Mohd Hazri in operating Praxair air Plasma Spray Equipment and CSEM Tribometer Equipment.
I gratefully acknowledge my Head at Plastics Ceramics Programme, SIRIM Berhad, Shah Alam, Dr. Ahmad Fuad Md. Yusuf, my Coordinator Dr. Teng Wan Dung, my colleagues Rafindde Ramli, Zarina Abdul Wahid, Zalena Saem, Zaini Rahmat and Azura Ruhan in supporting the experiment done at the Ceramics Technology Group.
Students at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Mara University of Technology, Shah Alam, Hasanul Ariff Che Jawias and Muhamad Yusup Hj. Kamis for their assistance in the early stage of my research with REMAKO, Klang.
Finally, to my beloved wife, Nor Saad for sharing her knowledge and giving the constructive criticisms and suggestion in completing this thesis.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF SYMBOLS LIST OF ABBREVIATION LIST OF APPENDICES LIST OF PUBLICATIONS & SEMINARS ABSTRACT
CHAPTER ONE : INTRODUCTION
1.1 Surface Engineering 1.2 Thermal Spray Coating 1.3 Ceramic Coating and Application 1.4 Objective of the study 1.5 Significance of the Research 1.6 Scope of the Study
CHAPTER TWO : LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction of Plasma 2.2 Thermal Spraying System
2.2.1 Flame Spraying 2.2.2 High Velocity Oxy-Fuel 2.2.3 Arc Spraying 2.2.4 Plasma Spray 2.3 Plasma Spray System 2.3.1 Plasma Torch System 2.3.2 DC Power Supply System 2.3.3 Control and Instrumentation System 2.3.4 Cooling Water System
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2.3.5 Gas Supply System

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2.3.6 Material Feeder System

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2.4 Coating Material

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2.4.1 Coating Material Properties

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2.4.2 Evaluation of The Coating Powder

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2.5 Substrate Surface Preparation

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2.6 Coating Deposition and Structure

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2.7 Test Methodologies

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2.7.1 Coating Characterisation

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2.7.2 Coating Properties

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2.7.3 Coating for Wear

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2.7.4 Coating for Thermal Cycling Process

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2.9 Coating Application

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CHAPTER THREE: PRAXAIR PLASMA SPRAY SYSTEM AND COATING DEVELOPMENT

3.1 Introduction

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3.2 Praxair Plasma Spray System

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3.2.1 Plasma Torch

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3.2.2 Power Supply

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3.2.3 Automatic Controller (Main Controller)

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3.2.4 Cooling System

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3.2.5 Gasses System

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3.2.6 Powder Feeder

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3.3 Powder Selection

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3.3.1 Ceramic

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3.3.2 Bond Coating

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3.3.3 Powder Selection of Coating

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3.4 Important Parameters and Parameters Consideration

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3.5 Other Variable Parameters Consideration

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3.5.1 Robot Setting Programming

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3.6 Ceramic Coating Deposition

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3.7 Bonding Mechanism of Plasma Spray Coating

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3.8 Stress

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CHAPTER FOUR: EXPERIMENTAL AND TESTING PROCEDURE

4.1 Introduction

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4.2 Experiments

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4.2.1 Coating Materials

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4.2.2 Metal Substrate and Surface Preparation

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4.2.3 Coating Deposition and Parameters Selection

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4.3 Phase and Characterisation

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4.3.1 XRD Analysis

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4.3.2 SEM Analysis

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4.4 Physical Testing

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4.4.1 Adhesion Strength Test Measurement

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4.4.2 Adhesion Test Procedure

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4.4.3 Hardness Test Measurement

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4.4.4 Bending Test Measurement

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4.5 Wear Test

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4.6 Thermal Resistance Test

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4.7 Porosity

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CHAPTER FIVE: TEST RESULTS AND DISCUSSION OF COATING SAMPLE

5.1 Overall Analysis

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5.2 Metco 204NS Coating

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5.2.1 XRD Analysis of Metco 204NS Coating

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5.2.2 SEM Analysis of Metco 204NS Coating

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5.2.3 Adhesion Strength and Hardness Analysis of Metco

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204NS Coating

5.2.4 Bending Test Analysis of Metco 204NS Coating

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5.3 ALO-105 Coating

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5.3.1 XRD Analysis of ALO-105 Coating

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5.3.2 SEM Analysis of ALO-105 Coating

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5.3.3 Adhesion Strength Analysis of ALO-105 Coating

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5.3.3.1 Adhesion Strength and Stand-Off-Distance

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5.3.3.2 Adhesion Strength and Powder Flow Rate

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5.3.3.3 Adhesion Strength and Current

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5.3.4 Hardness Test Analysis of ALO-105 Coating

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5.3.4.1 Hardness and Stand-Off-Distance

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5.3.4.2 Hardness and Powder Flow Rate

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5.3.4.3 Hardness and Current

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5.3.5 Coating Thickness Analysis of ALO-105 Coating

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5.3.5.1 Coating Thickness and Powder Flow Rate

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5.3.5.2 Coating Thickness and Stand-Off-Distance

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5.3.5.3 Coating Thickness and Current

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5.4 Wear Test Analysis of ALO-105 Coating

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5.5 Thermal Resistance/ Cycling Analysis of ALO-105 Coating

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5.6 Coating Porosity Analysis of ALO-105 Coating

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5.7 Summary of Coatings

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CHAPTER SIX: CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RECOMMENDATION

6.1 Conclusions

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6.2 Future Recommendation

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REFERENCES

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APPENDICES

1.1 Materials Properties Analysis

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1.2 Profiling of Substrate and Coating Surface Using Mitutoyo

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Surftest SV600 Instrument

1.3 Typical Powder and Coating Properties from Powder

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Manufacture (Praxair Technologies Inc.)

1.4 Test Results of Coating

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LIST OF TABLES
2.1 Typical industrial applications of plasma spray coating
3.1 Type of example (sample S1) for the gas flow rate setting of ALO-105 coating according to conversion from orifice flow chart gasses
3.2 Variables parameters of robotic arm setting for plasma sprayed coating
4.1 Coating powders specification for plasma spray coating
4.2 Variables parameters and roughness of substrate surface preparation for the ALO-105 and Metco 204NS
4.3 Chemical analysis of the metal substrate (JISG3103: SS400)
4.4 Plasma spraying parameters for the Amdry 962 and Metco 204NS coating using 3MB Gun type and Argon and Hydrogen gas mixture
4.5 Plasma spraying parameters for the NI-109 and ALO-105 coating using SG-100 Gun type and Argon and Helium gas mixture
4.6 Polishing parameters for specimen of microhardness test
4.7 Setting parameters of the hot mounting process with brown epoxy resin
4.8 Parameters of the wear test applied for the coating samples
5.1 Test results of mechanical performance (adhesion strength and hardness) for the plasma sprayed Metco 204NS coating
5.2 Test results of adhesion strength for ALO-105 coatings after plasma sprayed according to variable setting parameters in Chapter 4
5.3 Test results of hardness for ALO-105 coatings after plasma spayed according to variable parameters setting in Chapter 4
5.4 Test results of the thickness of NI-109 and ALO-105 coatings after plasma sprayed according to variables setting parameters in Chapter 4
5.5 Test results the friction coefficient of ALO-105 coating after plasma sprayed according to variable processing parameters setting in Chapter 4

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5.6 Results of thermal resistance/ cycling test at 800oC to room

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temperature

5.7 Porosity test result of ALO-105 coating as top coating and NI-

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109 coating as bond coating.

5.8 Summary of physical test results of plasma sprayed ALO-105

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coating for samples S1 to S8

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LIST OF FIGURES
2.1 Plasma flame or ‘fourth state of matter’ was formed when heat added
2.2 Temperature distribution and geometry of plasma jet
2.3 Group of thermal spraying process
2.4 Gun design and flame spraying coating was sprayed onto substrate
2.5 Gun design and HVOF coating was sprayed onto substrate
2.6 Gun design and wire arc spraying coating was sprayed onto substrate
2.7 Gun design and plasma spray coating was sprayed onto substrate
2.8 Basic system (gases, power, cooling, controller, feeder and plasma torch) of the plasma spray equipment
2.9 Schematic of plasma torch type F4 produced by Plasmatechnik Co.
2.10 Temperature distribution of plasma beam (a) for argon gas and (b) for nitrogen gas
2.11 Effect of plasma torch parameters on temperature characteristics of plasma beam.
2.12 Voltage-current characteristics of a torch and power supply
2.13 Control system 3710 of Praxair Technology
2.14 Plasma sprayed process for internal coating of turbine chamber
2.15 Schematic representation of coating structure
2.16 Typical interface geometries used for sliding friction and wear test
2.17 Turbine chamber was coated with ceramic powder
3.1 Plasma SG-100 Gun from Praxair and TAFA’s technology
3.2 Model 3710 Controller of Praxair Plasma Spray Equipment
3.3 Orifice flow chart conversions of gasses of Model 3710 Controller

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