The Individual & Change The Change Process The Changing Workplace

Preparing to load PDF file. please wait...

0 of 0
100%
The Individual & Change The Change Process The Changing Workplace

Transcript Of The Individual & Change The Change Process The Changing Workplace

MFR UNIT 5 - TH E CHANG ING W ORK PL ACE

Highlights • Bridge’s Model of Transition • The Individual & Change • Resistance

Inside • Systems Thinking • The Change Process • Roles of the Leader in Change

The Changing Workplace

Are you fighting white water?
Managing a work group through major change is like running the rapids.

You confront a completely new set of problems. People act differently. The world around you speeds up and many techniques that worked while you paddled along on a peaceful river no longer apply. Where do you start?
Br idge’s Model of Tr ansi tion Transition is the psychological process that all people must go through before they can come to terms with the new situation. This applies whether the change is positive or negative. There are three stages: endings, the neutral zone and beginnings.
3 Stages of Transition
BEGINNING NEUTRAL ZONE ENDING
time
O4-1

End in g s During endings people experience a sense of loss and pain because they have to stop doing things in their old familiar way - things they may have been doing for many years. Endings can occur in an organization where there are changes to what we do, how we do it, where we do it or who we do it for. The Neu tra l Zon e The period of time between letting go of the old and becoming comfortable and habitual with the new. It is often the most difficult to manage. People are out of the old but not into the new which leaves them in a state of confusion. Levels of absenteeism, teamwork and productivity are erratic. On the positive side, there is a lot of opportunity for creativity as people begin to try the new way. This creativity needs to be encouraged and harnessed or it will quickly disappear.

B eg in n in gs This is the final stage of transition, when people begin to work within the new structure, taking on new roles, responsibilities or physical space. Often, before employees are given information on the new structure, their leaders have studied the new plan for the organization and their work unit in detail. The leader must realize that the employees will need additional time to consider the new structure and embrace the change, even though the leader him/herself is ready.

The Indivi dual and Change

The individual asks fundamental questions change: • Do I have a job? • What is my role? • How predictable is the

some during future?

1

MFR UNIT 5 - TH E CHANG ING W ORK PL ACE

R esi s t ance Some individuals embrace change, while
others will resist. Each individual has a different style, experience, background and priorities outside of the workplace and they will respond in different ways. Other sources of resistance include those from the business environment and from within the organization: • political & regulatory issues • computer architecture • work space design • standards, policies & procedures It’s also important to keep a systems perspective in a changing workplace …
Sy stems Thinki ng A system is a network of interdependent parts that come together for a specific purpose. A system continually works to maintain balance which is achieved through harmonious working of all the parts. Dysfunction of one or more of the parts causes stress on the whole system. If people work within such a system, it’s a set up for failure and frustration, regardless of their ability and motivation to do the work. AECL is a system within systems. We need to continually look at all the parts of this system. • The Business Environment • The Company Environment • The Team • The Individual • AECL’ s 6 point checklist

The 6 point checklist is described in • visioning

more detail in “ Conflict Resolution” • systems thinking (the big picture)

(unit 6).

• communication

• understanding the needs of

others

The Change Process

• conflict resolution

• designing & implementing

Change can be managed well, but a

change

number of factors need to be • sound knowledge of business

considered in order to gain buy-in

and commitment. The following fiveYour people will be looking at you and

step process will help you lead your behaviours and mirroring what

change initiatives.

they see. If you are negative and

pessimistic, your employees might be

too. If you are positive, caring and

supportive, your employees will be

Change & PFR Process Links

supportive of you and your ideas.

Change Management Process

Check List

ASSESS

PREPARE

IMPLEMENT

MONITOR & EVALUATE

REDESIGN

Planning for Results

Outcome Statement Key Result Statements Process & Caretaker Resource Assessment

Measure Performance

Challenge the Plan

Consider:

PEOPLE PROCESSES

STRATEGY REWARDS

STRUCTURE
GUIDING PRINCIPLES
O4-1

This shows the links between the Change Management process, the Planning for Results process and the six point checklist.
Roles of t he Leader in Change A leader needs many skills to manage work and people. To lead in an environment of constant change, these skills are essential:

1. What are some of the skills you require in order to lead in an environment of constant change?
2. What are some examples of “resistance to change” in your work group? What behaviours do you see?
3. Where are your people in the three stages of transition? Endings, Neutral Zone or Beginnings?
4. What can you do to help them move forward?
5. Is your attitude positive or negative? What messages are you giving to your work group and colleagues?
6. What can you do to help yourself with change and transition?

For more information, contact Organization Development and Training at your site.

6-Point Checklist
Strategy

Structure

Processes

Rewards

People

Guiding Principles

1.

2

UNIT 5: THE CHANGING WORKPLACE

__

Objectives
To discuss systems and the importance of systems-thinking in managing change.
To discuss a 6-point checklist for managing in a changing environment.
To discuss the stages of change and tasks involved in each stage.
To review Bridge’s Model of Transition and how it can be applied in the workplace.
O2-2

Agenda
1. Introduction 2. Systems-Thinking 3. The 6-Point Checklist 4. Change Process 5. Roles of the Leader in Change 6. Resistance 7. Bridge's Model of Transition 8. Summary
O2-3

________________

AECL

__________________________________________________P5-1

Managing For Results

UNIT 5: THE CHANGING WORKPLACE

__

Introduction

Continuous change has become the norm in business. It is constant, unpredictable and exponential. The more you understand it, the more successful you will be as an individual and a manager.
In this unit, you will look at a change process and how it affects your work teams and your work. You will look at how to plan change in order to effectively work through it.

Content

n Introduction
n Systems-Thinking n The 6-Point Checklist n Change Process n Roles of the Leader in Change n Resistance n Bridge’s Model of Transition n Summary and Follow-Up Support

________________

AECL

__________________________________________________P5-2

Managing For Results

SystemsThinking

UNIT 5: THE CHANGING WORKPLACE

__

A system is a network of interdependent parts that come together for a specific purpose. But, a system is made up of more than just parts. Parts alone do not function in a coordinated way. A system combines all its parts and their different activities or resources, and transforms these into actions or products through its processes. The parts must connect and communicate, and work in harmony in pursuit of a specific goal.
Some characteristics of a system are: • parts regularly interact with one another, • parts give and receive, • all parts combine to function as a whole in addition to having
independent functions, • parts are interdependent, • parts are connected by sub-systems or processes, • processes are the way work gets done, and • they can be open or closed, complex or simple.
A SYSTEM CONTINUALLY WORKS TO MAINTAIN BALANCE. This is achieved through harmonious working of all the parts. No one part exists in isolation. Relationships are a system’s way of connecting the various parts. Connections exist at many levels, in many directions.
Feedback between the parts and from outside the system is essential for the maintenance and survival of that system. If there is diminished or no feedback, the system will falter and may eventually fail completely.
Dysfunction of one or more of the parts causes stress on the whole system. The stress serves as an incentive for the system to rebalance itself.
If people work within a dysfunctional system, without doing something to re-balance the system, it’s a set-up for failure and frustration, regardless of their ability and motivation to do the work.
The following graphic demonstrates 4 subsystems that are at work in an organization and how each part contributes to the whole.

________________

AECL

__________________________________________________P5-3

Managing For Results

UNIT 5: THE CHANGING WORKPLACE

__

4 Subsystems

The Business Environment

The Company Environment

The Team

The Individual O2-8

THE BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT refers to what is going on in the business world outside of the organization. Eg. For a Nuclear Power company, this refers to such things as the country’s economy, energy requirements throughout the world, the public image of 'nuclear', or the rate of technological growth internationally.
THE COMPANY ENVIRONMENT refers to all factors internal to the organization. Varied geographical locations, highly regulated sites, company policies, unioinization, and culture are examples.
THE TEAM refers to the immediate work environment and the relationships within it.
THE INDIVIDUAL refers to what is going on within people: their skills, training, ambitions, emotions and physical health all play a part.

________________

AECL

__________________________________________________P5-4

Managing For Results

UNIT 5: THE CHANGING WORKPLACE

__

6-Point Checklist

The 6-Point Checklist highlights the areas that need to be addressed to be successful in business and helps point us to the many views we must consider.
6-Point Checklist

Strategy

Structure

Processes

Rewards

People

Guiding Principles
O2-10

STRATEGY. Strategy is the organization’s formula for success, based on its interpretation of the business environment. Strategy confirms the organization’s purpose, and establishes the overall direction, and key goals for the business. Corporate strategy is set by the executive. Successive managers then develop strategies and plans for their part of the business so that the overall business strategy is achieved.

PROCESSES & TECHNOLOGY. Work processes a series of related activities, and are the way we get work done. Processes are the work methods and procedures through which we develop outputs. There are also processes for communication and dealing with people, such as conflict resolution, performance review, etc. Technology is the equipment and tools that we use. Technology is usually an integral part of the work process, that’s why we have grouped them together.

________________

AECL

__________________________________________________P5-5

Managing For Results

UNIT 5: THE CHANGING WORKPLACE

__

PEOPLE. Having the right people where and when you need them in order to make the processes work is a vital part of meeting strategic goals. From a systems viewpoint, this area involves Human Resource planning, career progression, training, employee relations, and performance management and feedback systems. It is also important to consider relationships and the physical and emotional well-being of your people. People ARE the organization. If they are not able to perform their duties at a reasonable level of competence, for whatever reason, the organization will suffer. If all your people are positive and high achievers, the organization will excel.
REWARDS. The purpose of rewards is to align goals of employees with goals of the organization. Technically, rewards are part of the people area. However, rewards have such a powerful influence on behavior that they are identified them separately on the checklist, for emphasis. Non-monetary rewards are the most influential, and usually the easiest to develop. The highest impact non-monetary rewards are: meaningful work, opportunity to learn, personal autonomy over work, access to information, and timely performance feedback. Monetary rewards are pay, benefits, and performance incentives. These can have a powerful influence on how people view their jobs, the organization itself, and on their performance. The key to an effective reward system is that the rewards are meaningful to the employees something that they value!

STRUCTURE. An organization’s structure determines the distribution of responsibility, authority, and resources which establish the power to get things done. It will affect relationships within and outside the organization. The ideal structure will compliment the work and goals of an organization, and make it easier for the people to carry out work processes.

GUIDING PRINCIPLES. Guiding principles are the fundamental beliefs about how to run the business. These beliefs guide key business decisions and establish the parameters for personal and organizational performance. They also frame the behaviours that are expected and necessary for cooperative and effective accomplishment of goals. Clear principles are especially useful in times of stress and downsizing when individuals require guidance

________________

AECL

__________________________________________________P5-6

Managing For Results

UNIT 5: THE CHANGING WORKPLACE

__

to make difficult choices and try to adapt to the changes around them.
All six parts of the model are integrally linked. When we change a significant piece of one, it affects all the others.

Change Management

Why is change management such an important skill for leaders today?
Changes have occurred in our business environment. The business environment of the past was more orderly and predictable. It was possible to control things. Today, order has been replaced by what can appear to be chaos. Uncertainty has replaced predictability in many parts of our business environment. It is no longer feasible to control all the parts. Rather, we have to influence.
This is what we experience in a downsizing environment. Influence and mobility is determined by what you know and how well your knowledge can be transferred to many areas.
In an environment characterized by unpredictability, we need to learn change management skills that will allow us to pull out creative and ready-to-fit solutions.

Types of Change Management

There are four ways change can be managed:
1. Top-Down Approach - the leader decides the nature of the change/restructuring and says "make it so.

2. Cascade or Leader Approach - leaders promote the new method through their own example.

3. Network Approach - brings together highly 'opinion leaders' from all areas of the company to form a SWAT team empowered to cut through red tape, drive the business agenda forward and increase

________________

AECL

__________________________________________________P5-7

Managing For Results

UNIT 5: THE CHANGING WORKPLACE

__

performance. This approach is used when deeply entrenched resistance exists against new practices.
4. Cloning Approach - change is implemented in one part of the organization. The successes, problems and impacts are analyzed and improved upon; then its proven success is implemented in other areas of the organization. If the change is shown not to be successful, it can be redesigned or stopped prior to investing further time and money on it. This 'pilot' approach is effective when you are unsure of the impact.
All approaches can work, depending on the organization and it’s particular needs. The approach chosen should depend on the size and degree of impact of the change.

Top-Down Approach

Cascade or Leader Approach

Network

O5-12

O5-13

Cloning Approach

O5-14

O5-15

________________

AECL

__________________________________________________P5-8

Managing For Results
ChangeOrganizationPeopleLeaderRewards