The Moderating Effect Of Culture On Cognitive

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The Moderating Effect Of Culture On Cognitive

Transcript Of The Moderating Effect Of Culture On Cognitive

THEMODERATING EFFECT OF CULTUREON COGNITIVE RESPONDINGMECHANISMS TOWARD ADVERTISING MESSAGE SIDEDNESS
Roy Toffoli
A Thesis in
The Faculty of
Commerce and Administration
Presented in fartial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Concordia University Montreal, Quebec, Canada
February 1997
0 Roy Toffoli, 1997

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ABSTR4CT The Moderating Effect of Culture on Cognitive Responding Mechanisms Toward Advertising
Message Sidedness Roy Toffoli, PhD. Concordia University, 1997
The research reported herein examines the two-sided versus one-sided advertising
strategy tiom a cross-cultural perspective. It aimsto help [email protected] conflictinghdings in crossculturalresearch with this form of appeai, as well as deveIop a model of the moderating effect
of culture on the underlying mediational processes, namely, the formation of correspondent inferences and cognitive responding. A number of hypotheses are generated to explicitly examine the relationship between the cultural dimension of individualism-coIlectivism and dispositional attributions, source honesty, types of cognitive responses, and attitude toward the brand, following exposureto two-sided versus one-sided messages. An experiment was carried out in which subjects fiom a collectivist culture, namely, Hong Kong, and subjects ftom an individualisticculture, namely, Anglo Canadians, were exposed to one-sided and two-
sided messages in their native languages. The results of the research indicate that there are significant interactions with respect to certain of the cognitiveresponses generated as well as a significant main effect of culture on the formation of dispositional attributions. From the
point of view of the favorability of the cognitiveresponses generated, the findings point to two-sided advertisements as being more effective than their one-sided counterparts for individualists; while the reverse occurred with the collectivist subjects. Directional support

iv was also obtained with respect to attitude toward the primary attniute and attitude toward the brand. The primary implication is that the two-sided message strategy is more applicable fbr individualist societiessuch as mainstreamNorth America, but it may be counterproductive ifexported to collectivists societies such as China or Japan.

I dedicate this thesis to Adriana, Carla, and Daniela and
to the memory ofmy parents

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Researching and writing a dissertation is a long and arduous task A number of individuals have provided support and encouragement aIl along the way. To these individuals, I owe a debt of gratitude.
F"mt of dl,1wodd like to thank Dr. Michel Laroche, the chairman of my dissertation committee, for accepting to supenrise this dissertation. His expertise in consumer research coupled with his wealth of experience in studying the consumption behavior of Canadian subculturesmade him the ideal mentor to guide me through the difEcuIt field of cross-cultural research. I am gratefid for his dedication, and for the steadfast support that he gave me throughout my doctoral studies without which this project would never have been completed.
I would also like to thank Dr. Jean-Charles Chebat, Dr. Chankon Kim, and Dr. Jerry RosenbIatt, for serving on my doctoral committee. Their guidance during critical stages of my research are greatly appreciated. Dr. Chebat provided me with a steady stream of ideas during the development of my proposal, as well as valuable assistance in the area of social psychology. To Dr. Kim, I owe special gratitude for much technical advice on issues dealing with cross-cultural methodology. And to Dr. Rosenblatt I am indebted, first for being my instructor in Consumer Behavior and for developing my interest in consumer research and, lastly,for motivating me to undertake this extensive project.
The entire Marketing Department at Concordia, including the part-time fkculty,
deserve s p e d thanks.True to the best of research traditions, they provided an intellectudy stimulating environment and a strong sense of fellowship. They were always willing to help, and they made this project rewarding at both the academic and the personal level. I would

vii particuIarIy like to thank Dr. Zeki Gidengil, Chairman of the Department, for his encouragement, for providing me with the opportunity to gain valuable teaching experience, and, W y , for all his efforts at ensuringthat I had the appropriate W t i e s in which to carry out my research In this regard, I would also like to thank Cynthia Law and Betty Lai. Their pleasant smiles, kind words of encouragement, and assistance really helped make my stay in the department more enjoyable.
Technicalcodtation was obtained from a number ofpeople.F iof all, I would like
to thank Harold Simpkins for his help in developing the advertisements which were used in the experiment. Special appreciation is also extended to Chris and Isabelle Miodek for providing assistance during the data processing phase. Mark Tomiuk, a doctoral candidate, and Claudia Chan, a master's student in the same department, assisted me during the many days of coding of the cognitive responses. Claudia was responsible for the Chinesejudges who rated the cognitiveresponses of the Chinese subjects; while Mark handled the coding of the Anglo Canadians' cognitive responses. To these individuals and to the others who worked on these tasks, I am greatIy indebted.
I would also like to thank all the faculty members at Concordia and McGill
Universities,and the various collegeswho assisted me in carrying out the experiment. Special thanks in this regard are owed to Robert Soroka, Annamma Joy, Brian Barbieri, and Ricky de Brentani. Robert Soroka took an active interest in my research, and made it possible for me to efficiently recruit the Anglo Canadian subject volunteers. Annamma Joy was able to administerthe experimentto her Chinese studentsat a major Hong Kong University, and thus provide me with a significant number of Chinese subjects for the experiment. In addition to

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graciously allowing me to recruit volunteers in their classes, Brian Barbieri and Ricky de Brentani have always been a source of support and encouragement throughout my studies.
Many other members of the university community also played a role. Special thanks
is also extended to Mrs. Heather Thomson for her dedication to the graduate students, and for all the administrative assistance and support given to me over the years. I am also indebted to Mrs. Sharon Carey for her valuable assistance for the typing and proofieadiig of the final drafts.
A number of individualsfiom the Chinesecommunity, as well as former students both at Concordia and McGill assisted me in various ways. AU deserve special thanks for helping to make this project a reality. Special tribute is owed to Louis Yip who devoted considerable time in helping me to recruit qualified translators and subjects for the experiment.
Finally, thisdissertation would not have been possible without the continuous support, encouragement and love fiorn my wife, Adriana. She stood by me throughout the long years, handling the daily requirement of family, work, and the necessity of providing me with a serene environmentto enable me to carry out my research. For this, I would like to express to her my deepest gratitude.
I would also like to thank my daughters, Carla and Daniela for encouraging me in my endeavour, and for giving up so much of the time that we could have spent together.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii
LIST OF F'IGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxv
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1 Objectives of the Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2.2 Theories of Persuasion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1-2.1 Integrative Frameworks of Brand Attitude Formation Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
I.2.1.1 The Elaboration Likelihood Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2 .2.1.2 Mitchell's Brand Processing Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 I2.1.3 Greenwdd and Leavitt'sModei . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1.2.1.4 Lutz's Typology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....11 1.2.1.5 MacInnis and Jaworski's Integrative
Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
12.2 The Three Prevailing Paradigms of Persuasion Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
CHAPTER 2: TWO-SIDED VERSUS ONE-SIDEDPERSUASION APPEALS . . . . 22
2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 2.2 Yale Group Findings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 2.3 Research on Two-sided Appeals in Advertising . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2.3.1 Different Operationalizations of Message Sidedness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2.3.2 Correlational Inferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 2.3.3 Two-sided Refbtationd Appeals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
2.4 Theoretical Explanations of Message Sidedness Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
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