2019 Mid-Atlantic Commercial Vegetable Production

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2019 Mid-Atlantic Commercial Vegetable Production

Transcript Of 2019 Mid-Atlantic Commercial Vegetable Production

2019 Mid-Atlantic Commercial Vegetable Production Recommendations
Delaware
University of Delaware Cooperative Extension (EB137)
Maryland
University of Maryland Extension (EB-236)
New Jersey
Rutgers Cooperative Extension (E001)
Pennsylvania
Penn State Extension (AGRS-028)
Virginia
Virginia Cooperative Extension (456-420)
West Virginia
West Virginia University Extension Service

For Immediate Medical Attention Call 911
For a Pesticide Exposure Poisoning Emergency Call
For All States
This number will automatically connect you to the poison center nearest you. Anyone with a poisoning emergency can call the toll-free telephone number for help. Personnel at the Center will give you first-aid information and direct you to local treatment centers if necessary.
For Pesticide Spills
Small Spills: See the product label for cleanup advice. Large spills: Call the National Response Center at 1-800-424-8802 or CHEMTREC at 800-424-9300 (24 hours) - Industry assistance with emergency response cleanup procedures for large, dangerous spills. Be aware of your responsibility to report spills to the proper state agency.

Preface
NOT TO BE USED BY HOME GARDENERS
This copy of the Mid-Atlantic Commercial Vegetable Production Recommendations for 2019 replaces all previous editions of the Commercial Vegetable Production Recommendations published individually for Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia. Information presented in this publication is based on research results from the University of Delaware, the University of Maryland, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, The Pennsylvania State University, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, West Virginia University, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, combined with industry and grower knowledge and experience. This vegetable production guide is intended for the commercial vegetable grower who has to make numerous managerial decisions. Although the proper choices of variety, pesticides, equipment, irrigation, fertilizer, and cultural practices are the individual vegetable grower’s responsibility, it is intended that these recommendations will facilitate decision-making. Recommended planting dates will vary across the six-state region. Local weather conditions, grower experience, and variety may facilitate successful harvest on crops planted outside the planting dates listed in this guide. This can be evaluated in consultation with the local agents and state specialists. Government agencies and other organizations administrating crop insurance programs or other support programs should contact local Extension agents and/or vegetable specialists for guidance. The publication will be revised annually or as is necessary to include new information that evolves in the rapidly changing vegetable industry. Important updates will be communicated through local Extension agents and vegetable specialists. The Editors welcome constructive criticism and suggestions from growers and industry personnel who may wish to help improve future editions of this publication.
DISCLAIMER ● The label is a legally-binding contract between the user and the manufacturer. ● The user MUST follow all rates and restrictions as per label directions. ● The use of any pesticide inconsistent with the label directions is a violation of Federal law.
Pesticide User Responsibility Always follow the label and use pesticides safely. For special Local-Needs Label 24(c) registrations or Section 18 exemptions, do not use the material without a copy of the special label or written instructions from your Extension Agent or another recognized authority. The user is always responsible for the proper use of pesticides, residues on crops, storage and disposal, as well as for damage caused by drift. State and federal pesticide regulations are constantly under revision. Be sure to determine if such changes apply to your situation. Using pesticides inconsistent with label directions is illegal.
Days Between Last Application and Harvest The minimum number of days between the last application and harvest (PHI, Pre-Harvest Interval, in days) and reentry information (REI, Restricted Entry Interval, in hours) are listed in the herbicide, insecticide and fungicide recommendation tables in chapter F. Commodity Recommendations. This information is also listed by chemical in chapter D. Pesticide Safety (Table D-5. Acute Toxicity of Chemicals). Always follow the label to avoid the occurrence of deleterious chemical residues on harvested crops.
Trade or Brand Names The trade or brand names given herein are supplied with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement is implied. Furthermore, in some instances the same compound may be sold under different trade names, which may vary as to label clearances. For the convenience of our users, both product names and active ingredients are provided and any product name omissions are unintended
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Coordinators and Editors
2019 Mid-Atlantic Commercial Vegetable Production Recommendations
Coordinators C.A. Wyenandt, Ph.D. Extension Specialist in Vegetable Pathology (Rutgers University) M.M.I. van Vuuren Ph.D. (Rutgers University)
Discipline Editors Entomology
Thomas P. Kuhar, Ph.D. (Virginia Tech)
Pesticides George C. Hamilton, Ph.D. (Rutgers University)
Weed Science Mark J. VanGessel, Ph.D. (University of Delaware)
Horticulture Ramón A. Arancibia, Ph.D. (Virginia Tech)
Plant Pathology C.A. Wyenandt, Ph.D. (Rutgers University)
The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits discrimination in all its programs and activities on the basis of race, color, national origin, age, disability, and where applicable, sex, marital status, familial status, parental status, religion, sexual orientation, genetic information, political beliefs, reprisal, or because all or a part of an individual’s income is derived from any public assistance program. (Not all prohibited bases apply to all programs.) Persons with disabilities who require alternative means for communication of program information (Braille, large print, audiotape, etc.) should contact USDA’s TARGET Center at (202) 720-2600 (voice and TDD). To file a complaint of discrimination write to USDA, Director, Office of Civil Rights, 1400 Independence Avenue, S.W., Washington, D.C. 202509410 or call (800) 795-3272 (voice) or (202) 720-6382 (TDD). USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer.
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Contributors by State
These recommendations were prepared and reviewed by the following individuals from respective institutions with the purpose of providing up to date information for commercial vegetable growers in the mid-Atlantic states of Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia.

University of Delaware Horticulture E. Ernest G.C. Johnson Weed Science M.J. VanGessel K. Vollmer Entomology D. Owens

Rutgers University Horticulture M. Infante-Casella W. Kline T.J. Orton R.W. VanVranken Weed Science T. Besançon Entomology K. Holmstrom J. Ingerson-Mahar Pathology C.A. Wyenandt Pesticide Safety G.C. Hamilton P.D. Hastings

Virginia Tech Entomology H.B. Doughty T.P. Kuhar J.M. Wilson Pathology R.A. Arancibia D.B. Langston

University of Maryland Entomology G.E. Brust Pathology K.L. Everts M.J. Hu

PennState Horticulture K. Demchak F. Di Gioia T.E. Elkner E. Sánchez Weed Science D. Lingenfelter J.M. Wallace Entomology S.J. Fleischer B.J. Lingbeek Pathology B.K. Gugino
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West Virginia University Horticulture L.W. Jett Weed Science R.S. Chandran Pathology M.M. Rahman

State Extension Information
DELAWARE
University of Delaware University of Delaware Agricultural Extension: http://extension.udel.edu/ag/ Vegetable Program Trial Reports, Publications, and Budgets: http://extension.udel.edu/ag/vegetable-fruit-resources/vegetable-small-fruits-program/ Weekly Crop Update Newsletter: http://extension.udel.edu/weeklycropupdate/ Insect Trap Program: http://extension.udel.edu/ag/insect-management/insect-trapping-program/ UD Plant Diagnostic Clinic: http://extension.udel.edu/ag/plant-diseases/ud-plant-diagnostic-clinic University of Delaware Weed Science: http://extension.udel.edu/ag/weed-science/
Statewide Gordon Johnson, Fruit and Vegetable Crops Specialist, 302-856-7303, [email protected] Emmalea Ernest, Associate Scientist, Vegetables, 302-856-7303, [email protected] Mark VanGessel, Weed Specialist, 302-856-7303, [email protected] Alyssa Koehler, Extension Specialist, Plant Pathology, 302-856-7303, [email protected] Kathryne Everts, Vegetable Plant Pathology Specialist, 410-742-8780, [email protected] David Owens, Entomology/IPM Specialist, 302-856-7303, [email protected] William Cissel, IPM Extension Agent, 302-893-9206, [email protected] Nancy Gregory, Plant Diagnostician/ Diagnostic Lab Coordinator, 302-831-1390, [email protected]
County Offices New Castle County: Carrie Murphy, 302-831-2506, [email protected] New Castle County: Dan Severson, 302-831-2506, [email protected] Kent County: Phillip Sylvester, 302-730-4000, [email protected] Sussex County: Tracy Wootten, 302-856-7303, [email protected] Sussex County: Cory Whaley, 302-856-7303, [email protected]
MARYLAND
University of Maryland University of Maryland Extension: http://extension.umd.edu/topics/agriculture Maryland Vegetables: http://extension.umd.edu/mdvegetables Vegetable & Fruit Headline News: http://extension.umd.edu/anne-arundel-county/agriculture/vegetable-fruit-headline-news
University of Maryland Extension Specialists Wye Research and Education Center Robert J. Rouse (Emeritus), Horticulture Specialist Lower Eastern Shore REC-Salisbury Kathryne L. Everts, Plant Pathologist Central Maryland REC-Upper Marlboro Gerald E. Brust, IPM Vegetable Specialist
Amy E. Brown, Pesticide Coordinator Cerruti R. R. Hooks, IPM and Insect Ecology Galen Dively (Emeritus), Entomology and IPM
University of Maryland Plant Diagnostic Lab https://extension.umd.edu/plantdiagnosticlab Karen Rane, Department of Entomology 4112 Plant Sciences Building, College Park, MD 20742 301-405-1611
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State Extension Information
NEW JERSEY
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station: http://njaes.rutgers.edu/ag/ Fact Sheets and Bulletins: http://goo.gl/PyBwOb; Plant & Pest Advisory: http://plant-pest-advisory.rutgers.edu Mid-Atlantic Commercial Vegetable Production Recommendations: http://njaes.rutgers.edu/pubs/publication.asp?pid=E001 Pesticide Applicator Certification Information, NJ DEP Pesticide Control Program http://www.nj.gov/dep/enforcement/pcp/bpo-appprivate.htm#part2
Rutgers NJAES Extension Specialists (complete listing at: https://njaes.rutgers.edu/es/) A.J. Both, Specialist in Controlled Environment Engineering, 848-932-9534, [email protected] Thomas Orton, Specialist in Vegetables, 732-932-4000, [email protected] George Hamilton, Specialist in Pest Management, 848-932-9801, [email protected] C.A. Wyenandt, Specialist in Vegetable Pathology, 732-932-4000, [email protected] Joseph Heckman, Specialist in Soil Fertility, 848-932-6333, [email protected]
Rutgers Cooperative Agricultural Extension Agents (complete listing at: https://njaes.rutgers.edu/county/) Atlantic County, Richard VanVranken, 609-625-0056, [email protected] Burlington County, Bill Bamka, 609-265-5050, [email protected] Cape May County, Jenny Carleo, 609-465-5115, [email protected] Cumberland County, Wesley Kline, 856-451-2800, [email protected] Gloucester County, Michelle Infante-Casella, 856-224-8040, [email protected] Hunterdon County, Megan Muehlbauer, 908-892-9436, [email protected] Mercer County, Meredith Melendez, 609-989-6830, [email protected] Middlesex County, Bill Hlubik,732-398-5262, [email protected] Morris County, Peter Nitzsche, 973-285-8304, [email protected] Passaic County, Amy Rowe, 973-287-6360, [email protected] Sussex County, Steve Komar, 973-948-3040, [email protected] Warren County, Hank Bignell, 908-475-6511, [email protected]
Rutgers NJAES Plant Diagnostic Lab and Nematode Detection Service http://njaes.rutgers.edu/plantdiagnosticlab/; [email protected] 20 Indyk-Engel Way, North Brunswick, NJ 08902, phone: 732-932-9140, fax: 732-932-1270,
Rutgers Soil Testing Lab http://njaes.rutgers.edu/soiltestinglab/ 57 US Highway 1, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, 848-932-9295, [email protected]
PENNSYLVANIA
The Pennsylvania State University Penn State Extension including publications, fact sheets, and more: http://extension.psu.edu Penn State Vegetable Production: https://extension.psu.edu/forage-and-food-crops/vegetables Vegetable and Small Fruit Gazette newsletter, click on the "Get Connected" button at: https://extension.psu.edu/forage-and-food-crops/vegetables
Penn State Vegetable Team Directory For complete listing and contact information see: https://extension.psu.edu/forage-and-food-crops/vegetables/vegetables-experts
Plant Diagnostic Clinic: http://plantpath.psu.edu/facilities/plant-disease-clinic 220 Buckhout Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802, Phone: 814-865-2204
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State Extension Information
VIRGINIA
Virginia Tech & Virginia State University Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE): https://ext.vt.edu/ VCE Publications and Educational Resources: http://pubs.ext.vt.edu/ and https://ext.vt.edu/agriculture.html Virginia Tech Pesticide Programs (VTPP): http://vtpp.ext.vt.edu Virginia Extension Specialists Ramón A. Arancibia, Assistant Professor, Horticulture Mark S. Reiter, Associate Professor, Nutrient Management Steve L. Rideout, Associate Professor, Plant Pathology Tom P. Kuhar, Professor, Entomology Laura K. Strawn, Assistant Professor, Food Microbiology James A. Parkhurst, Associate Professor, Wildlife David B. Langston, Jr., Professor, Plant Pathology Jayesh Samtani, Area Specialist, Small Fruit Plant Disease Clinic 106 Price Hall, 170 Drillfeld Drive, Virginia Tech Blacksburg, VA 24061-0331 Phone: 540-231-6758, Fax: 540-231-7477, [email protected] Or contact the local VCE office Insect Identification Lab 205A Price Hall, 170 Drillfeld Drive, Virginia Tech Blacksburg, VA 24061-0319 Phone: 540-231-4899, [email protected] Or contact the local VCE office
WEST VIRGINIA
West Virginia University Extension Service: https://extension.wvu.edu/agriculture/horticulture
West Virginia University Extension Specialists Lewis W. Jett, Ph.D., Extension Horticulture Specialist G215 Agriculture Sciences Building, Morgantown, WV 26506-6103, 304-293-2634
Rakesh S. Chandran, Ph.D., Extension Weed Specialist and IPM Coordinator 3417 Agriculture Sciences Building Morgantown, WV 26506-6108, 304-293-2603
MM (Mahfuz) Rahman, Ph.D., Extension Plant Pathology Specialist G101 South Ag. Sciences Building, Morgantown, WV 26506-6108, 304-293-8838
Plant Diagnostic Clinic https://extension.wvu.edu/lawn-gardening-pests/plant-disease/plant-diagnostic-clinic G102 South Ag. Sciences Building, PO Box 6108, Morgantown, WV 26506-6108 Phone: 304-293-8838/288-9541, [email protected]
Soil Testing Lab https://soiltesting.wvu.edu 1309-B Agricultural Sciences Bldg., P.O. Box 6108, Morgantown, WV 26506-6108, Phone: 304-293-6023, [email protected]
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Table of Contents

Preface Coordinators and Editors Contributors by State State Extension Information Table of Contents Listing of Tables and Figures Abbreviations and Acronyms

Chapter

Section Title

A

1

General

2

Production

3

4

Recommendations 5

Varieties Seed Storage and Handling Specialty Vegetables Organic Production Transplant Production

6

Conservation Tillage Crop Production

7

Mulches and Row Covers

8

Staking and Trellising

9

High Tunnels

10

Greenhouse Production

11

Wildlife Damage Prevention

12

Pollination

13

Food Safety Concerns

B
Soil and Nutrient Management

1

Soils

2

Liming Soils

3

Plant Nutrients

4

Nutrient Management

5

Soil Improvement and Organic Nutrient Sources

C
Irrigation Management

1

Basic Principles

2

Drip (Trickle) Irrigation

3

Fertigation

4

Subsurface Drip Irrigation Systems

5

Chemigation

D
Pesticide Safety

1

General Information

2

Handling Pesticides

2.1

Introduction

2.2

Applying Pesticides

2.3

Pesticide Transport

2.4

Pesticide Storage

2.5

Disposal of Pesticides

2.6

Disposal of Containers

3

Soil Fumigants

4

Farm Worker Safety

4.1

Regulations

4.2

Protecting Yourself from Pesticides

4.3

Respiratory Protective Devices for Pesticides

4.4

Pesticide Poisoning

Table of Contents - continued on next page

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Page 1 2 2 3 3 8 9 11 12 14 14 21 28 31 31 35 38 45 49 51 56 57 57 59 59 59 60 60 61 62 62 62 63 63 65 66 68

Table of Contents - continued

Chapter

Section Title

D
Pesticide Safety (continued)

5

Protect the Environment

5.1

General Guidelines

5.2

Notification of Beekeepers

5.3

Protecting Your Groundwater

5.4

Pesticide Spills

6

Toxicity of Chemicals

E
Pest Management

1

How to Improve Pest Management

1.1

Recommendations for More Effective Pest Control

1.2

Calibrating Field Sprayers

1.3

Calibrating Granular Applicators

1.4

Pesticide Drift and Misapplication

1.5

Soil Fumigation

1.6

Nematode Control

2

Weed Control

2.1

Postharvest Perennial Weed Control

2.2

Herbicide Effectiveness on Common Weeds in Vegetables

2.3

Crop Rotation Planting Restrictions

2.4

Prepackaged Herbicide Mixtures

2.5

Herbicide Site of Action: Reducing the Risk of Herbicide

Resistance

3

Insect Control

3.1

Soil Pests - Detection and Control

3.2

Insecticide Mode of Action: Reducing the Risk of Insecticide

Resistance

3.3

Insect Pest and Mite Control for Greenhouse Production

3.4

Insect Pest and Mite Control for Chemigation

4

Disease Control

4.1

Fungicide Mode of Action: Reducing the Risk of Fungicide

Resistance

4.2.

Fungicides Registered for Vegetables

4.3

Disease Control in Seeds, Plant Growing Mix and Plant Beds

4.4

Disease Control for Greenhouse Production

F
Commodity Recommendations (commodities listed in alphabetical order)

Pesticide Use Disclaimer Asparagus Beans (Snap and Lima) Beets (Garden) Carrots Celery Cole Crops (Broccoli, Brussels Sprouts, Cabbage, Cauliflower, Collards, Kale and Kohlrabi)

Cucumbers

Eggplant

Garlic

Greens (Mustard, Turnip, Asian)

Horseradish

Leeks

Table of Contents - continued on next page

Page 68 68 69 69 71 71 84 84 88 89 90 91 91 95 95 95 95 107 108
110 110 112
112 115 117 117
117 123 124 127 128 137 150 154 160 166
182 195 204 210 215 219

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