Application Guide for Thermal Desorption Systems

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Application Guide for Thermal Desorption Systems

Transcript Of Application Guide for Thermal Desorption Systems

NA C
ENTER

ES E
ENG INE

VA L FA C IL I TI

RI

E

NG SERVIC

NAVAL FACILITIES ENGINEERING SERVICE CENTER Port Hueneme, California 93043-4370
Technical Report
TR-2090-ENV

APPLICATION GUIDE FOR THERMAL DESORPTION SYSTEMS
by

April 1998

Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

Printed on recycled paper

Section 1.0:

TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION............................................................................................. 1

Section 2.0: OVERVIEW OF THERMAL DESORPTION SYSTEMS .............................. 3

2.1 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Definition of Thermal Desorption ..... 3 2.2 Thermal Desorption Systems ........................................................................... 4

2.2.1 Continuous-Feed Systems – Direct Contact.......................................... 5 2.2.2 Continuous-Feed Systems – Indirect Contact ....................................... 7 2.2.3 Batch-Feed Systems – Heated Oven ..................................................... 9 2.2.4 Batch-Feed Systems – Hot Air Vapor Extraction (HAVE)
System ................................................................................................ 10 2.2.5 Batch-Feed Systems – In Situ Systems: Enhanced Soil Vapor
Extraction (SVE) ................................................................................. 12 2.2.6 Batch-Feed Systems – In Situ Systems: Enhanced Soil
Vapor Extraction (SVE) ..................................................................... 13

2.3 Generalized Process Flow Diagram ................................................................ 13

Section 3.0: APPLICABILITY OF THERMAL DESORPTION SYSTEMS.................... 16

3.1 Site Characterization ....................................................................................... 16

3.1.1 3.1.2 3.1.3 3.1.4 3.1.5 3.1.6 3.1.7 3.1.8 3.1.9 3.1.10 3.1.11 3.1.12 3.1.13

Chemical Composition ....................................................................... 16 Soil Particle Size Distribution ............................................................ 16 Composition ....................................................................................... 16 Bulk Density ....................................................................................... 17 Permeability ....................................................................................... 17 Plasticity .............................................................................................. 17 Soil In-Place Homogeneity ................................................................ 17 Moisture Content ................................................................................ 17 Heat Content ....................................................................................... 18 Contaminant Type, Concentration, and Distribution ......................... 18 Halogen Content ................................................................................. 18 Metals Concentrations ........................................................................ 18 Alkali Salt Content ............................................................................. 19

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TABLE OF CONTENTS (contd.)

3.2 When to Use Thermal Desorption................................................................... 19

3.2.1 Temperature Range Considerations .................................................... 19 3.2.2 Need for Treatability ......................................................................... 19 3.2.3 Metals Contamination ........................................................................ 20 3.2.4 Decision Tree ..................................................................................... 23

Section 4.0: DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS............................. 26

4.1 Unit Parameters ............................................................................................... 26

4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3

First-Tier Treatability Testing ............................................................ 28 Second-Tier Treatability Testing ....................................................... 28 Third-Tier Treatability Testing .......................................................... 29

4.2 Utility Requirements ....................................................................................... 29

4.2.1 Fuel ..................................................................................................... 29 4.2.2 Water .................................................................................................. 30 4.2.3 Electricity ............................................................................................ 30

4.3 Site Considerations/Logistics ......................................................................... 31

4.3.1 4.3.2
4.3.3 4.3.4 4.3.5 4.3.6 4.3.7 4.3.8 4.3.9 4.3.10

Amount of Material to be Treated ...................................................... 31 Proximity to Alternative Off-Site Means of Treatment or Disposal .......................................................................................... 31 Contaminants of Concern (Physical and Chemical Properties) ......... 31 Local Cost/Availability of Labor and Utilities ................................... 31 Site Setting ......................................................................................... 31 Area Available on Site ....................................................................... 32 Local Climate and Season of the Year ............................................... 32 Regulatory Agency Acceptance ......................................................... 32 Existing Activities at the Site ............................................................. 32 Transportability of Equipment ........................................................... 33

4.4 Previous Project Performance ....................................................................... 34

Section 5.0: COST DATA................................................................................................... 40

5.1 Capital Cost Factors ........................................................................................ 40

5.1.1 Treatment System Type ..................................................................... 40 5.1.2 Treatment Temperature Capability ..................................................... 40

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TABLE OF CONTENTS (contd.)

5.1.3 Waste Processing Throughout............................................................. 40 5.1.4 Chlorinated Contaminant Processing Capability ................................ 40 5.1.5 Gas Cleaning System ......................................................................... 40 5.1.6 Instrumentation and Control (I&C) System ....................................... 40

5.2 Capital Cost Recovery..................................................................................... 40 5.3 Unit Rate Costs................................................................................................ 41 5.4 Operation and Maintenance Costs................................................................... 43 5.5 Typical Petroleum Project Cost Estimates ...................................................... 44

5.5.1 Small Project Tasks ......................................................................... 45

5.5.1.1 5.5.1.2 5.5.1.3 5.5.1.4

Overview ........................................................................... 45 Site Characterization and Excavation ............................... 45 On-Site Thermal Desorption ............................................. 47 Off-Site Thermal Desorption ............................................ 47

5.5.2 Project Cost Estimates......................................................................... 47

5.5.2.1 5.5.2.2 5.5.2.3

Mobile Treatment Systems................................................ 47 Stationary Treatment Systems........................................... 48 Unit Cost Factors............................................................... 48

5.5.3 Project Cost Estimates......................................................................... 48

5.5.3.1 5.5.3.2 5.5.3.3

Mobile Systems ................................................................. 48 Stationary Systems ............................................................ 49 Cost Adjustment Factors ................................................... 49

5.6 Project Cost-Estimating Methodology ............................................................ 57

5.6.1 Project Work Plan ......................................................................... 57 5.6.2 Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) .................................................... 58 5.6.3 Project Cost Estimate ......................................................................... 58

Section 6.0: CONTRACTING STRATEGIES ................................................................... 60

6.1 Government Ownership ................................................................................. 60 6.2 Subcontracting Consideration ......................................................................... 62 6.3 Thermal Treatment Bid Form ........................................................................ 64

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TABLE OF CONTENTS (contd.)

Section 7.0: REGULATORY COMPLIANCE ISSUES .................................................... 68

7.1 General Regulatory Issues ......................................................................... 68

7.1.1 Siting Regulations ......................................................................... 68 7.1.2 Operational Regulations...................................................................... 68

7.2 Specific Regulatory Issues ......................................................................... 68

7.2.1 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Regulations .......................................... 68

7.2.1.1 7.2.1.2 7.2.1.3 7.2.1.4

Remedy Selection Criteria (CERCLA 121(b)) ................. 69 Compliance with ARARs (CERCLA 121(d))................... 69 CERCLA Permitting Requirements (CERCLA 121(e)) ... 69 Federal Facilities (CERCLA 120)..................................... 69

7.2.2 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Regulations ....... 70

7.2.2.1 7.2.2.2 7.2.2.3

RCRA Regulated Wastes .................................................. 70 Contaminated Environmental Media ................................ 70 RCRA Permitting .............................................................. 70

7.2.3 RCRA Exclusions for Petroleum-Contaminated Soils........................ 71

7.2.3.1 7.2.3.2

Petroleum Contaminated Soils Subject to Underground Storage Tank Regulations ................................................. 71 RCRA Recycling Exemption ............................................ 71

7.2.4 Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA)............................................... 71

7.3 Soil Cleanup Levels ....................................................................................... 71

Section 8.0: CASE STUDIES ............................................................................................. 74

8.1 Example Case Study: Mayport Naval Station, Mayport, Florida .................. 74

8.1.1 Project Background ................................................................. 74 8.1.2 Soil Remediation Process........................................................ 76 8.1.3 Treatability Testing and Sampling .......................................... 76

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TABLE OF CONTENTS (contd.)

8.1.4
8.1.5 8.1.6

Full-Scale Technology Demonstration and PostTreatment Sampling ................................................................ 77 Decontamination and Demobilization..................................... 78 Cost.......................................................................................... 78

8.2 Example Case Study: American Thermostat Superfund Project, South Cairo, New York................................................................................... 78

8.2.1 Project Background ......................................................................... 78 8.2.2 Progression of the Remedial Process ................................................. 86 8.2.3 Transition from Phase I to Phase II..................................................... 87 8.2.4 Design and Operating Parameters ....................................................... 87 8.2.5 Lessons Learned from the American Thermostat Project................... 88

Section 9.0: IMPLEMENTING A THERMAL DESORPTION PROJECT ...................... 90

Section 10.0: SUMMARY .................................................................................................... 92

Section 11.0: REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY ...................................................... 95

APPENDIXES

A - COMPARISON OF DIRECT-CONTACT THERMAL DESORPTION TO INCINERATION
B - CONTAMINANT CHARACTERISTICS C - SOIL CHARACTERISTICS D - EXAMPLE THERMAL DESORPTION HTRW REMEDIAL
ACTION WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE E - REGULATORY CLEANUP CRITERIA F - COST FACTORS G - TYPICAL PROJECT TASKS H - TYPICAL THERMAL DESORPTION SPECIFICATION I - ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS USED IN APPLICATON
GUIDE TEXT AND APPENDICES

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2-1. Figure 2-2. Figure 2-3. Figure 2-4. Figure 2-5. Figure 2-6.

First Generation – Direct-Contact Thermal Desorption Process ...................... 5 Second Generation – Direct-Contact Thermal Desorption Process .................. 6 Third Generation – Direct-Contact Thermal Desorption Process.................... 7 Indirect-Contact Rotary Dryer Thermal Desorption Process............................ 8 Indirect-Contact Thermal Screw Thermal Desorption Process......................... 9 Batch-Feed Thermal Desorption System– Indirect-Contact Heated Oven ..... 10

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TABLE OF CONTENTS (contd.)

Figure 2-7. Figure 2-8. Figure 3-1. Figure 3-2. Figure 3-3. Figure 5-1. Figure 5-2. Figure 5-3. Figure 5-4. Figure 8-1. Figure 8-2.

Batch-Feed Thermal Desorption System– Direct-Contact HAVE System..... 11 Generalized Schematic Diagram of Ex Situ Thermal Desorption Process ..... 14 Soil Treatment Temperatures for Selected Chemical Compounds ................. 21 Soil Treatment Temperatures for Selected Petroleum Products ..................... 21 Thermal Desorption (TD) Technology Selection Decision Tree .................... 14 Large Mobile Rotary Dryer Treatment Costs ................................................. 51 Small Mobile Rotary Dryer Treatment Costs ................................................. 52 Mobile Thermal Screw Treatment Costs ........................................................ 53 Stationary Rotary Dryer Treatment Costs....................................................... 54 American Thermostat Site Phase I Soil Excavation Areas ............................. 83 American Thermostat Site Phase II Soil Excavation Areas............................ 84

LIST OF TABLES

Table 3-1.
Table 4-1.
Table 4-2.
Table 4-3. Table 4-4. Table 4-5. Table 4-6. Table 4-7. Table 4-8. Table 4-9. Table 4-10. Table 5-1. Table 5-2.
Table 5-3.
Table 5-4.
Table 6-1. Table 6-2. Table 6-3 Table 7-1.
Table 7-2. Table 8-1.

EFFECTIVENESS OF THERMAL DESORPTION ON GENERAL CONTAMINANT GROUPS FOR SOIL, SLUDGE, SEDIMENTS, AND FILTER CAKES.................................................................................... 20 DESIGN CHARACTERISTICS OF CONTINUOUS-FEED THERMAL DESORPTION TECHNOLOGIES ............................................ 27 DESIGN CHARACTERISTICS OF BATCH-FEED THERMAL DESORPTION TECHNOLOGIES ................................................................ 27 U.S. OVER-THE-ROAD FREIGHT LIMITATIONS ................................... 33 DIRECT-CONTACT ROTARY DRYER SYSTEM ..................................... 35 INDIRECT-CONTACT ROTARY DRYER SYSTEM ................................. 36 INDIRECT-CONTACT THERMAL SCREW SYSTEM .............................. 37 BATCH-FEED HEATED OVEN SYSTEM .................................................. 38 BATCH-FEEED– HAVE SYSTEM............................................................... 38 IN SITU THERMAL BLANKET SYSTEM .................................................. 39 IN SITU THERMAL WELL SYSTEM ......................................................... 39 TYPICAL COST INFORMATION FROM LITERATURE.......................... 43 UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK SITE CHARACTERIZATION AND EXCAVATION COST FACTORS....................................................... 46 THERMAL DESORPTION TREATMENT COST ADJUSTMENT FACTORS ......................................................................... 55 THERMAL DESORPTION TREATMENT COST ADJUSTMENT WORKSHEET..................................................................... 56 CATEGORIES TO BE ASSESSED IN SELECTING BEST VALUE.......... 63 EVALUATION CRITERIA WEIGHTINGS ................................................. 63 TYPICAL THERMAL TREATMENT BID FORM ...................................... 66 FEDERAL REGULATORY PROGRAMS SOIL
CLEANUP LEVELS........................................................................... 72 COASTAL STATES SOIL CLEANUP LEVELS.......................................... 73 THERMAL DESORPTION SYSTEM INFORMATION.............................. 76

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TABLE OF CONTENTS (contd.)

Table 8-2.
Table 8-3. Table 8-4.
Table 8-5. Table 8-6.
Table 8-7.

ANALYTICAL METHODS AND REGULATORY THRESHOLDS USED IN POST-TREATMENT SAMPLING............................................... 77 THERMAL DESORPTION TEST RESULTS............................................... 78 AMERICAN THERMOSTAT PROJECT WASTE CHARACTERIZATION DATA .................................................................... 79 AMERICAN THERMOSTAT PROJECT COST INFORMATION ............. 86 AMERICAN THERMOSTAT PROJECT SUMMARY OF THERMAL DESORPTION AWARDS ......................................................................... 86 AMERICAN THERMOSTAT PROJECT EQUIPMENT AND KEY OPERATING PARAMETERS FOR EACH PHASE .................................... 88

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Systematic guidance information on various currently available thermal desorption systems is not readily available. The purpose of this Application Guide is to provide (1) technical information on, design and performance characteristics, cost, associated regulatory compliance issues, and contracting strategies for deploying thermal desorption systems, and (2) to establish a process for implementing thermal desorption technology at naval installations. This guide is written primarily for technical personnel at naval engineering field divisions, public work centers and field activities and assumes that thermal desorption will be implemented primarily through a contract for services with a vendor who specializes in the installation and operation of thermal desorption systems for clean-up projects. This guide is intended to assist Remedial Project Managers (RPMs) and Project Engineers (PEs), who manage and execute environmental remediation projects at military facilities, by giving them knowledge and tools necessary in considering thermal desorption technologies for their projects.
The frequently debated definition of thermal desorption technology is that it is a two-step thermally induced physical separation process. It consists of one, applying heat to a contaminated material to vaporize contaminants into a gas stream, that two, is treated to meet regulatory requirements prior to discharge. Though most thermal desorption systems are applied to petroleum-contaminated sites, some are capable of handling contaminants ranging from highmolecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pesticides to chlorinated hydrocarbons, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This treatment is accomplished by one of two types of thermal desorption. Low temperature thermal desorption systems heat contaminated material between 200 to 600°F while high temperature systems involve heating the material between 600 and 1,000°F. Different models of thermal desorption systems are available and thorough physical and chemical site investigations are required to select a system for a given application. Each system has unique design and performance characteristics that must be acknowledged prior to its implementation. As with every remediation technology, there are a number of significant factors to consider when estimating the cost to deploy a thermal desorption system. Yet, unlike some technologies, it is strongly recommended that remediation projects using thermal desorption technology be completed through turnkey contracting services. Many factors discussed in this guide outline why Navy ownership and leasing of thermal desorption systems is not recommended.
There are many hurdles that would confront an RPM during the Remedial Action Process of a thermal desorption project, only one of which is regulatory compliance. Though not as numerous as for incineration, there are a number of federal, state, and local regulatory compliance issues that govern the use of thermal desorption. However, helpful case studies of projects that have applied thermal desorption technology, at Naval Station Mayport Jacksonville, Florida and the American Thermostat Site of South Cairo, New York, have provided key lessons for executing a project successfully.
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Section 1.0: INTRODUCTION
This Application Guide is organized into several sections which provide an overview of the thermal desorption technology and takes the reader through the steps involved in contracting for thermal desorption services. Specific topics covered in each section are as follows:
• Section 1 – Introduction: Describes the overall purpose of the document and presents the organization of the document.
• Section 2 – Overview of Thermal Desorption Systems: Describes the available types of thermal desorption systems and provides a list of potential vendors for each type.
• Section 3 – Applicability of Thermal Desorption Systems: Describes when to use the various types of systems and the information needed to make this decision.
• Section 4 – Design and Performance Characteristics: Provides a summary of the design and performance characteristics of various thermal desorption systems.
• Section 5 – Cost Data: Discusses how to implement thermal desorption, and summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of government ownership versus subcontracting. This section includes typical cost information, summarizes operation and maintenance issues, and shows how to estimate the cost of a project.
• Section 6 – Contracting Strategies: Provides a summary of the contracting options available to implement thermal desorption.
• Section 7 – Regulatory Compliance Issues: Provides a general discussion of the types of regulations that may be applicable to thermal desorption remediation projects and lists current cleanup requirements by state.
• Section 8 – Case Studies: Provides a summary of two representative thermal desorption projects as case studies. One case study is a small project involving petroleum-contaminated soils, and the other is a large project involving soils contaminated with chlorinated organics.
• Section 9 – Implementing a Thermal Desorption Project: Briefly summarizes the initial steps of contracting a site for clean-up and restoration. Also notes key factors that RPMs should acknowledge when considering thermal desorption application.
• Section 10 - Summary
Desorption SystemsDesorptionContentsDesorption TechnologyMaterial