Chapter 5 CULTURAL ARTS - University of California, Los

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Chapter 5 CULTURAL ARTS - University of California, Los

Transcript Of Chapter 5 CULTURAL ARTS - University of California, Los

104 Community-Based Research : A Handbook for Native Americans
Popham, W . James, Educational Evaluation (Englewood Cliffs, NJ : PrenticeHall, Inc ., 1975) .
The focus of this text is on measurement techniques for assessing educational progress . Alternative measurement techniques are presented as well as classical techniques, measurement of effect, evaluation designs, sampling strategies, analyzing evaluative data, reporting evaluation results, cost analysis considerations, and teacher evaluation . Written on an intermediate to advanced level .
Rutman, Leonard, editor, Evaluation Research Methods : A Basic Guide (Beverly Hills : Sage Publications, 1977) .
This intermediate to advanced level text on evaluation presents such topics as planning of the evaluation study, evaluability assessment (determining which program components can be appropriately evaluated for their effectiveness), measurement in criminal justice, randomized and quasi-experimental designs, data analysis, information systems for evaluation and feedback in mental health organizations, and benefit cost evaluation . The focus of the content is on identifying the practical problems faced by the evaluator in carrying out an evaluation design, and is useful in planning an evaluation study .
Shortell, Stephen M . and William C . Richardson, Health Program Evaluation (St . Louis : The C . V . Mosby Company, 1978) .
With an emphasis on health programs, the text outlines the evaluation process, evaluation designs, measurement, data collection, problems of implementation, and public policy issues . Presentation is at an intermediate to advanced level .
Van Mannen, John, "The Process of Program Evaluation," in The Grantsmanship Center News (January/February, 1979), pp . 29-74 .
This is an excellent introductory article on formative evaluation . Topics covered include the evaluation model (processes), evaluation questions, measurement issues, comparison, confidentiality, and practical issues about working within the program setting . The material is written from an experienced viewpoint and covers many practical questions, including application of the results .
Wholey, Joseph S ., Evaluation : Promise and Performance (Washington, D . C . : The Urban Institute, 1979) .
This text, intended as a handbook for evaluating federal programs, is used by many agencies in monitoring program progress . Seeing the structure of measures can help a program to structure record keeping and data collecting in a manner that will maximize the ability to work with an evaluator . Topics covered include : collecting information, modeling, analysis, resource requirements, potential problems, feedback to the program, performance monitoring, and managing a useful evaluation program . Material is presented on a beginning to intermediate level .

Chapter 5
CULTURAL ARTS
Community-based research techniques are useful for preserving and continuing the traditional arts and culture . Attention to this type of .development can balance change with tradition . In this chapter information is presented on organizing people, identifying resources, and defining a cultural or arts project . Steps are given for accomplishing a project . You will find specific techniques described for tape recording and photography, as well as an overview of video and film documentation . Other topics are covered that often prove difficult in culture and fine arts projects, such as protecting information, avoiding bias, and developing continued support for the arts .

106 Community-Based Research : A Handbook for Native Americans
While developing new social and economic resources, Native American communities are often concerned with maintaining a balance with the ties of tradition . Merging the old with the new is an ideal that can be accomplished with careful planning . Since traditional arts are a part of the life ways of community members, the arts are important to every aspect of community life . The following chapter suggests techniques for organizing projects concerning the arts and outlines basic methods for cultural and fine arts documentation . Materials needed for a project can vary from the small tape recorder to video taping equipment, or to a notebook . Projects do not need to be limited by resources . The methods outlined below emphasize the basic techniques and materials with which goals can be accomplished .
Cultural arts projects can be useful to you in the following ways :
• Developing policies for sharing and protecting information • Supporting traditional artists and teaching programs • Starting community museums and cultural centers • Increasing community participation in and access to cultural
activities • Raising ongoing funds for arts programs • Recognizing and honoring traditional artists
Projects in the arts can vary from the collecting of objects to the documentation of cultural materials or descriptive research .A further step in the research process involves interpretation, or relating the particular event or meaning of the material item to the rest of a particular culture. For example, when native categories are identified through documentation, these may be related to (or repeated in) other cultural activities, resulting in a broader meaning . Patterns are more likely to emerge when the community-based researcher devises a framework or a particular type of methodology for a documentation project . For example, in recording songs, the methodology of the project may try to include the complete song repertoire for a particular singer . Or, in documenting native categories of plants used to make baskets, a pattern may be discovered that is repeated elsewhere in the culture . Such patterns may have a great deal of meaning in showing how different kinds of activities in the culture are related to each other .
An arts project is a way for your community to recognize and encourage the traditional arts .
ORGANIZING PEOPLE
When programs are considered for traditional culture and fine arts, there is not always total agreement within a given community . For ex-

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ample, some persons may be interested in preserving and documenting the traditional arts while others may be interested in economic development . One method of maintaining a balance of community interest is through the creation of a cultural arts committee . Such a committee can be very effective in setting policy for arts programs through careful representation . Some examples of the criteria, or characteristics of members, which can balance a committee include :
Age • Geographical location in community or reservation • Sex
Religion • Speaker of native language (versus non-speaker, dialect differences) • Clan differences
Or, another way to look at community representation is to include people who carry out different activities in the community, such as :
• Tribal political leadership • Elders and ceremonial leaders • Business office or manager of tribe • Local educational leadership • Youth • Specialists from the community
An arts committee, beyond being a vehicle for obtaining funding, can function as a decision-making group which sets the policy for priorities, the type of documentation needed, the handling of profits or losses, and the protection of information . To fulfill these functions, the committee needs to participate in such decisions as the project methodology (details of how the work will be accomplished), and the rate by which the participants will be paid . Some tribal arts committees have set a standard rate of payment to be used for outsiders as well as insiders working with traditional artists . An arts committee can help protect community interests and help groups or individuals make more informed decisions when the issue of sales is in question . Time considerations are often best decided by a committee . For example, a higher priority might be put upon documenting or teaching a particular art form that is in danger of disappearing due to the age or health of the older keepers of the traditions . Coordination with the tribal planning office is another possible function of a committee to make certain that the projects planned fit in with other long-term projects . For example, through coordination efforts to provide space to house the arts project may be gained as part of a larger building project . The arts committee can be a means of accomplishing a balance of knowledge and interests .

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METHODS

Once an arts committee or representative group is formed, the methods (or ways) of accomplishing the project can be defined . Some approaches to culture and fine arts projects are presented as steps .
Step 1 : Choosing a topic may well be the most important step in a project. Is the topic narrow enough to be accomplished with the available time and resources? Do the goals and priorities fit in with the tribal and/or community long-range goals? Some example of project topics are :

• To film the basket making process and encourage learning of the

process by showing the film to community groups

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• To record the winter ceremonies through tape recording songs and

documenting activities . • To create a culture bank of traditional herbs and document the use

of herbs for healing purposes . • To document oral history through the use of tape recorded inter-

views .

The scope of a project may vary greatly from a small project documenting one aspect of a traditional art or set of ceremonies, to a larger project if resources are available . Remember that even the smallest project is a valuable start, and may be used as a pilot project to gain resources for a larger, expanded project .

Step 2 : Identifying resources is a step necessary to defining a realistic project . Here are some types of resources to consider :

• Identify the people in the community who are available to work on the project, for they can be the key generations for continuing arts . One person designated as a project director or person responsible for coordination will help the project to flow smoothly in accomplishing the goals .

• Identify outside expertise available to help with a project . People are often available at no cost or at a minimal cost to the project . The resources to a project can be greatly increased by including those from outside the community . For example, the staff of local museums or funding agencies can provide technical assistance and
serve as a liaison for gaining additional resources . To ensure a work-
ing relationship that benefits both the community and outsiders, criteria should be established to determine what kind of expertise is needed, then who will provide necessary assistance from outside .

1 1 0 Community-Based Research : A Handbook for Native Americans
• Identify space available or needed for the project . Coordination with the tribal administration, planning office or museum may result in some added space to conduct the project . For example, collection or documentation projects may need space to store or display project results . If needed space is not available, then funds may be located for this purpose .
• Identify equipment available to the project . Other community projects may have equipment that can be loaned or rented to the project . Renting from a community project rather than an outside source channels funds back to the community, and can help cover the cost of repairs and maintenance . After equipment available is identified, then a realistic list of equipment needs can be compiled . Another source for equipment is through a rental company . High quality equipment can usually be rented for less than the cost of purchasing minimum quality equipment . Particularly for projects where the event occurs very rarely or if the participants are the older culture bearers, the importance of a high quality documentation the first time cannot be emphasized enough . Yet, the project should be accomplished and not postponed for lack of equipment . Explore your resources .
• Identify funds needed and funds available to the project. Once the work plan for the project is completed, then a realistic estimate of the funds needed can be reached .
Step 3 : Locate work already completed on your topic . It is important not to spend time duplicating work that has already been done . If some work is located on your topic, then the project can build upon that work, increasing the scope of the accomplishments of your project . Some sources to check are listed in Figure 5 .11 and in the list of libraries under the LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SERVICES chapter .
Step 4 : Develop the methodology or work plan for the project ; that is , the methods or techniques to accomplish the work . This plan also serves as a guide for those who help, with everyone working toward the same objectives and within a similar timeframe . Objectives are the short-term steps that are needed to complete the project . For example, for the basket-making documentation project mentioned above, objectives might be :
To locate elders with skills in the making of traditional baskets

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• To identify the materials used in basket-making and the steps in the basket-making process through tape-recorded interviews with these elders
• To film the basket-making process

• To prepare transcripts and a copy of the film for tribal museum use
• To arrange for screening of the film by youth and other community programs

A timetable is useful for further indicating the tasks to be done in completing the objectives . An example of a timetable reflecting the tasks for the objectives outlined above is given in Figure 5 .2 . Further examples of timetables are presented under RESEARCH PROPOSALS AND REPORTS . In addition to its value in explaining the project plan in a funding proposal, the timetable is an invaluable resource for coordinating the project staff.
The methodology can also include a description of the choice of media and the anticipated equipment needed . Details on how the data will be collected are also part of the methodology . A plan for the analysis of data could be included in detail . Information on the distribution of results to the community or to a broader audience, or whether the results will be protected, is valuable for the arts committee . Whether the plan will be completed in much detail for a funding proposal, or submitted as an outline to the arts committee, it will be a useful tool for self-evaluation of the progress made toward completing the project .
Step 5 : Now that a preliminary plan is finished, funding can be located if needed for the project . Several resources are mentioned below in Figure 5 .11, and then in Appendix A on funding RESOURCES FOR RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT .
Step 6 : Once the resources are located to carry out the project plan, then the selection of participants can be a next step . For a narrow topic, e. g. documenting a particular song repertoire, select the most qualified and representative performers or artisans . For projects that require larger samples, include both younger and older, and other differences in the population group (such as differences in sex, religion geographical representation, clan, speaker vs . non-speaker) .
Step 7 : Complete the work plan as originally outlined, or through modifying the goals if necessary . Documenting why the goals were modified is

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important in communicating changes to the arts committee or the funding agency . If materials are identified and prepared for storage as the work progresses, then the final write-up of the project results will be made much easier . A periodic review of the work plan will help in keeping to the original objectives outlined, for it is easy to get side-tracked in an interesting project .
Step 8 : Finishing tasks for a project usually include preparing the final report and ensuring for adequate storage and/or display of the project results . Dissemination of materials is also a common step in completing the project . Seeing that the continuity plan goes into effect, if one exists for the project, is also a type of final step for the project .
This set of steps has suggested a common outline for a fine arts project . Different projects might have more or fewer steps, depending on the type of project . Documentation and interpretation projects include analysis of the material in its cultural context (setting or meaning) .
COLLECTING DATA
There are many ways of collecting data for your particular project . We have chosen three of the most common media for data collection during community-based projects : tape recording, photography, and videotaping . These are discussed along with methods for collecting information and documenting cultural context . Other methods do exist and might be applicable for your particular project .
Tape Recording
A common and inexpensive method of documenting oral histories, music, and cultural context for the use of items is through tape recordings . Tape recorders vary in price from an inexpensive cassette to high quality stereo machines costing thousands of dollars . Reel-to-reel recorders generally give the best quality recordings for documentation projects, while only the very best quality cassette recorders can produce an adequate recording. Rental of a high quality tape recorder is one means of securing good equipment on a low budget, rather than purchasing of an inexpensive recorder . One of the most important considerations to give to the quality of the machine is whether a level meter is present . This helps the researcher to see if the recording level will give a clear representation of the speech or music recorded . One important rule of thumb to remember is :
Use the best, quality machine available!

1 1 4 Community-Based Research : A Handbook for Native Americans
Sometimes valuable projects are postponed for too long for lack of expensive equipment . There are other important things to consider for a project, besides the cost of the equipment .
Other such considerations are reliability and availability of service, particularly in rural areas. A good quality microphone also improves the overall recording quality . And, the quality of the tape used for recording is yet another important consideration . When good quality tape is used for recording, the product does not have to be duplicated periodically ; therefore, funds are saved in the long run . For reel-to-reel taping, a good tape would be one of 1 1/2 mil thick . A few of the things to remember and things to avoid are listed below .
• Check batteries, for a cordless recorder, to make certain that they do not need to be replaced before recording an important event .
• Keep hands clean during the recording period, to reduce the amount of oil, moisture, and other contamination reaching the surface of reel-to-reel tapes, and the tape heads .
• Record a test run and listen to make certain the recording is of good quality before undertaking an event, for example, a ceremony that may occur only once a year .
Follow the instruction manual that comes with the recorder to gain the maximum recording capabilities of the recorder .
• Get as close as possible to the subject(s) being recorded ; this sometimes means having a long cord for the microphone, and possibly a long handle .
• Place the microphone as close as possible to the singer's or speaker's mouth .
• Tape the whole event ; introductions, repeats, and false starts are important ; tape is cheaper than anyone's time .
• Use a fast speed such as 7 1/2 inches per second ; the tape will be clearer .
• Do not rewind a tape until you need to play it back ; rewind the tape loosely to help prevent the stretching of the tape during storage ; this can be accomplished by playing the tape on the second side, after taping the first side ; also, rewinding before use helps to restore the tape to its original condition .

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• Return reels and cassettes to their boxes immediately after use, for this helps to prevent dust and other materials from contaminating the tape surface .
• Store tapes in their boxes in an upright (on end) position to help protect the plastic reels from warping .
• Avoid extreme temperatures to retain the original condition of the tape; when a tape is exposed to extreme temperatures, as during transport, allow several hours to pass for the tape to regain room temperature .
• Don't place the microphone down directly on a hard surface or on the top of the recorder where vibrations may be picked up as noise on the tape ; many microphones come with stands to prevent this .
• Don't over-record ; use medium volume when recording, for you can always turn up the sound later ; if you record too loud and distort, the recording cannot be saved .
Once a tape recording is completed, a protection copy or a duplicate copy is then made . The protection copy is used for playback . The original copy should never be played, but rather kept in a safe place for the purpose of making new copies in case duplicates are needed . Most archives keep original copies under lock and key to be certain that the copy is not damaged or misplaced .
The effort that goes into the making of a recording can be shared with others if an identification or documentation sheet is kept . Documentation forms are an important part of any tape archive, or library . For example, the intentions of the researcher can be noted as well as any restrictions . Forms that accompany tapes often indicate :
• Who is allowed to listen • Whether translation is allowed • Whether duplication or publication is allowed • When the recording was made • Where the recording was made • Who was present at the time of recording
Kind of machine used Kind of quality (good, bad, indifferent) ; quality can be noted on two levels, both the quality of the recording and the quality of the interview • Archive number

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A sample documentation form is presented in Figure 5 .3, demonstrating some of the categories that can be included . Generally, a project develops a specific form that contains all of the important criteria for a given project . When a number of tapes are being stored in a tape archive, a numbering scheme is usually devised to create a catalog of the tapes . Use of a master catalog to locate tapes and documentation can save time for the listener and provide organization to the library . Figure 5 .4 presents a sample archive format, where the numbering scheme can be changed according to your project's needs .
Tape recording is a valuable way to document and preserve records . With adequate storage and periodical copying, recordings can provide a continuous resource for future generations .

Photography--a Way to Enjoy Your Community's Arts'

The material in this section on fine arts will demonstrate that it is pos-

sible for you to take professional-quality pictures of your community's art

works, even if you have never worked with a camera before . It will also

tell how these photographs can be used in your communities to bring your

people closer to the art traditions of the past .

All across the country, there are museums which have some of the finest

art works ever made by Native American people . It is only natural that

the people who live on reservations or in other Indian communities should

want to see these inspiring works and be nearer to these symbols of their

heritage . Unfortunately, the museums are not always nearby, and usually

the arts of one tribe are scattered in many different places . With gas and

transportation costs steadily rising, it is becoming more and more dificult

for Native Americans to be able to travel to see the arts made by their own

people . In fact, in many cases, they have never had the opportunity to see

things that were made by people in their own families .

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Recently, however, a simple photographic technique called

"camera copying" has been successfully used by some reservation people . 2

These people went in pairs or in small groups to selected museums where

their arts were kept . There they set up lights and a camera, then photo-

graphed, one by one, the objects that were made by their people.

What, basically, is camera copying?
To begin, an art object is placed on a black velvet cloth . Two lights on stands are directed onto the object to take away dark shadows . Then a special neutral gray card is placed over the object, and a professionalquality, 35 millimeter camera (preferably with an automatic light meter), is trained on the gray card . For example, a good quality camera would be a Nikon or a Canon (cameras may also be rented) . When the camera is set

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Figure 5 .3

RECORDING DOCUMENTATION

PROTECTION RESTRICTIONS (e . g . family, seasonal, lifespan of preformer, no exceptions)

ARCHIVE NO : COLLECTOR (original recording) : DATE of Original Recording : PLACE OF RECORDING : Town :
Ceremonial

DATE of Archiving :
TIME : County : Ground :

State :

GENRE OR TYPE : FUNCTION OR OCCASION : INSTRUMENTATION :

PERFORMERS (name, ages, residence) :

VOCAL :

Leader/Singer Name : Age : Residence : Tribe: Clan : Sex : Member of which

ceremonial

ground :

TECHNICAL REMARKS : ORIGINAL RECORDING

Timing: Original recording machine : Microphone used : Type of tape used : Speed :

TECHNICAL REMARKS : COPY
Archive Recording Machine : Type of tape used : Speed :

Quality : Excellent Good Fair Poor

ADDITIONAL ARCHIVE MATERIALS (e . g . photographs, films, material culture) & identification no .

ADDITIONAL REMARKS :

1 1 8 Community-Based Research : A Handbook for Native Americans

Fi ure 5 .4 SAMPLE ARCHIVE RECORD

ARCHIVE NO . 75 .2-1 75 .2-2 75 .2-3 75 .2-4 75 .2-5 75 .2-6

PLACE
Tahlequah Tahlequah Tahlequah Tahlequah Tahlequah Tahlequah

GENRE
Friendship Dance
Stomp Dance Stomp Dance Gar Dance Stomp Dance Doublehead Dance

75 .2-7 75 .2-8 75 .2-9

Tahlequah Tahlequah Tahlequah

Fox Dance Stomp Dance Stomp Dance

75 .2-10 75 .2-11 75 .2-12 75 .2-13 75 .2-14 75 .2-15

Tahlequah Tahlequah Tahlequah Tahlequah Tahlequah Tahlequah

Duck Dance Stomp Dance Stomp Dance Mosquito Dance Stomp Dance Closing Dance

HEAD SINGER Robert Jones Unknown Unknown Robert Jones Unknown Robert Jones and Levi Tiller Robert Jones Unknown Unknown
Robert Jones Unknown Unknown Robert Jones Robert Jones Robert Jones

Figure 5 .5

A museum masterpiece which was camera copied . (Southern California Indian tribe . Maker unknown)

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Figure 5 .6 A Camera Copying set-up .
to the correct light reading, the gray card is removed, and the object is photographed . To protect against error, the object is photographed again with a slightly higher exposure, and a third time with a slightly lower exposure . Your group may want to hire a technical advisor to show you how to operate your camera and to go with you to your first museum . Also, do not feel that you have to know all about photography to do camera copying. It is not really important for you to understand all about exposure readings, etc ., because you will be doing only one thing, and always under the same conditions .
The exposed film is then delivered or carefully mailed to a professional photographic laboratory (lab)--known for consistent, quality work . This lab then sends back slides if the film was color, or developed negatives and proof sheets if the film was black and white (b/w) . These original slides and negatives must then be carefully stored away from dust, heat, or fingerprints . Another set of slides or negatives may be copied from them for regular use .

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Figure 5 .7

Here is a collection of 650 slides made by Camera Copying museum
art works . This project was funded by a small grant from the Folk Arts division of the National Endowment for the Arts .

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Figure 5 .8

Here, is another storage case, is a collection of 350 black and white photographs which were also Camera Copied . These portraits and scenes were found in anthropology records, museum and library archives, miscellaneous books, and in family photo collections .

Camera copying may also be used to copy other photographs . Sometimes a close-up attachment or lens must be added to the camera, but the same basic technique as above is used .
Using Photographs of Your Arts
Slide and photograph collections like those just pictured may be looked at and enjoyed just as they are, or they may be "blown up" in many dramatic ways . That is, color slides and black and white negatives (b/w negs .) can be sent to labs and made into various sizes and types of prints to make exciting displays and presentations . Again, only professional labs who do high-quality "R prints" are recommended for color reproduction . A poor lab can make a photo appear as if an amateur took it, and can waste dollars in the long run .
Often the high costs of buildings, security, insurance, personnel, etc ., have prevented Native American groups from making cultural exhibits . However, photographic displays may be made at a fraction of the cost . Projectors and screens may be set up in exhibition areas, or in any other space, for slide shows with live, written, or taped interpretation . Or, color slides and/or black and white negatives may be "blown up" (enlarged) into prints, (poster size reproducations) mounted on walls, display

partitions, or on fold-up, portable screens--to name only a few possibilities . You may wish to consult with a professional exhibition designer or graphic designer who can show you some of the newest and most suitable display ideas for your own particular needs . It is also possible to improve small art collections with photographs which tell more about how a particular display object was made, who made it, how it was used, etc . Portrait galleries of black and white "photo blow-ups" are still another impressive, but low-cost alternative . Slide or print collections can also be used to make visual aids for teaching the children, and they can also be used as a remarkable memory aid to help the elders recall and document things from the past . Slides or other pictures about traditional culture may be used to inform guests, or to provide entertainment at your group gatherings . Designs copied from arts may be used to make stationery, cards, t-shirts, posters, etc ., and may be used to inspire your artists and craftsman with your tribe's oldest traditions .
Summary
The information here, if not a specific "how-to," has been an introduction to one very useful and simple photographic skill, namely, camera

122 Community-Based Research : A Handbook for Native Americans
copying . It has also explained how color slides and black and white negatives may be used in various ways so that your people can enjoy photographic displays of the oldest and finest examples of your arts on a day-today basis .'
VIDEO AND FILM IN CULTURAL DOCUMENTATION 5
There are certain advantages to the use of visual media in comparison with other media that have been employed in documentation .
Visual documentation could potentially alter the role of the participant from that of a nameless source of cultural information to that of an accomplished artist or performer in his or her own right . Too often, especially in written reports of ceremonies or cultural events, researchers have tended to describe cultural patterns in a manner which separates individual culture-bearers from their personal creative achievements . This source of potential distortion is practically eliminated in a medium in which the culture-bearers can speak for themselves .
• Visual documentation can also convey the personalities of the performers or other interview subjects . This dramatic element heightens the interest of most potential viewers, but more importantly, it can help provide keys to understanding musical meaning or the relation of the individual performance to cultural roles and norms .
• The use of visual media can directly convey instrumental playing positions, dance gestures, patterns and movements, and all manner of facial and other gestures . These types of information are important in themselves, but gesture and expression may also provide keys to musical and symbolic meaning that are not evident in writing .
Visual information is often useful in helping the listener isolate parts, and it becomes obvious who is playing what or singing or dancing . Facial expressions and body movements of singers often demonstrate the way of producing a particular vocal technique . The process of music making or dance can be documented along with the product .
There are certain technical advantages to using video when compared to film, which are of value for the community-based project .
Sound and picture are recorded and stored together on video tape . This feature allows advantages for editing that are easier than film .

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* Video is less expensive than film . Documentary films sell for about $20 .00 per minute and video programs likewise well commercially for around $3 .50 per minute (1981) . Cheaper productions costs not only influence the feasibility of a particular project, but they also directly affect distribution . This influences both the size and nature of the audience that any particular program can reach . Public schools and junior colleges, for example, tend to be ahead of universities in the use of video as an instructional medium . Cooperative projects with colleges and schools can broaden the range of facilities available for a project . The widespread dissemination of video programs on public educational television also broadens the potential audience for a program .
• Video generally provides a more accessible form of information for audiences than writing . In this sense, video has greater potential impact culturally than written works or film .
• Video can be screened immediately . Performers and other subjects can view their performances and comment on them directly . In this sense, video can be utilized immediately to gain performer's opinion about the quality of certain sections of the tape and they can participate actively in the editing process .
• Video can be stored or re-used ; whereas film, once shot, is used up . With fewer restrictions than film, the video-taping of an activity can be free-flowing and minimally structured, with the length later edited or even re-edited . The encouragement of free-flow documentation reduces the chance of an activity being altered for the taping session, and therefore increases the chances of obtaining a natural and accurate documentation . There are also other important advantages . For example, a lengthy ceremony might be shot in its entirety, assuring than important details of interest might not escape notice . In both the studio and the field, then, video techniques allow the researcher to be able to interfere less with the course of the events he or she wishes to document . Both practical and ethical implications can be considered for the usefulness of video .
Summary

There may be sensitive issues in the data-collecting process, aspects of recording so subtle that researchers working with their own
culture may not be readily aware of them . Keeping the participants comfortable with the data collection is a most important consideration . Researchers working within their own cultures sometimes learn new aspects
ProjectArtsTapeFilmRecording