Climate Change Risk and Resilience Workshop

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Climate Change Risk and Resilience Workshop

Transcript Of Climate Change Risk and Resilience Workshop

IRRP Project
Climate Change Risk and Resilience Workshop
Training workshop on Climate Change Risk and Resilience in Ghana’s Power Sector
USAID/Ghana Integrated Resource and Resilience Planning Project October 2017
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Contents 1 Introduction .................................................................................................3
1.1 Attendance.............................................................................................3 1.2 Opening.................................................................................................4 2 Key Activities of the Day ............................................................................4 2.1 Discussions............................................................................................4 2.2 Key Issues Raised During Presentations and Deliberations....................4 2.3 Exercises at the workshop......................................................................6
2.3.1 Results of Group Exercises:.............................................................7
Figures and Tables Table 1: Sequence of Proceedings at the workshop............................................4 Table 2: Key Issues raised during the presentations ...........................................5 Table 3: Resilience Measures Discussed by the four groups ............................ 10 Table 4: Participants of the Climate and Resilience workshop ......................... 12 Table 5: Historical Risk to Power Sector ......................................................... 14 Table 6: Resilience Measures for Climate Stressors ......................................... 19 Table 7: Comments from Participants of Climate and Resilience workshop ............................................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.
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1 Introduction
The Integrated Resource and Resilience Planning (IRRP) project will provide specific support to the Ghana EPA to implement the Ghana Nationally Determined Contributions (GNDC) under the Paris Agreement. Further to this, evaluate climate change impacts and associated resilience measures for the Ghana power sector. To this end, ICF is providing technical assistance and capacity building for MESTI, EPA, NADMO, CSIR, and other climate change stakeholders on various aspects related to achieving Ghana’s climate change commitments.
In collaboration with MESTI and EPA, ICF will undertake analytical and capacity building work supporting GHG accounting, verification and monitoring; adaptation and mitigation measures focused on the energy sector; development of proposals for the Green Climate Fund; updating climate models and associated impacts on hydrological modeling; climate impacts on off-grid systems; inclusion of climate change impacts and adaptation measures in the environmental and social impact assessments (ESIA); and other related issues.
The purpose of this workshop was to bring all the key stakeholders to one platform, identify the respective roles and efforts being made regarding climate risks and adaptation in Ghana.
The workshop was held at the La Palm Royal Beach hotel, Accra on October 25, 2017.

1.1 Attendance
The workshop was attended by a total of 41 people from the MESTI, EPA, MLGRD, CDIR, NADMO, Forestry Commission, Ecobank, Development Partners, and private entities. The breakdown of the participants is shown in Figure 1 below.

Figure 1: Sex disaggregation of participants at the Climate Change and Resilience Workshop

45

Sex disaggregation of Participants at Climate Change and Resilience

40

workshop

41

35

30 31

25

All Male Beneficiaries

20

22

All Female Beneficiaries

19

Total Beneficiaries

15

Male Ghana Beneficiaries

10 10
5

Total Ghana Beneficiaries Female Ghana Beneficiaries

3 0
Climate Change & Resilience Workshop

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1.2 Opening
The workshop was called to order at 9:15am by the COP of the IRRP project. He welcomed all to the workshop. Following a brief self-introduction, he made a short presentation on the concept of the IRRP project, current status of implementation, and the objectives of the climate related activities in the work plan of the expanded scope of work. The sequence of proceedings is as shown in the table below. The sequence of the activities at the workshop were as shown in Table 1 below.

Table 1: Sequence of Proceedings at the workshop No. Activity 1 Presentation 1: Climate Risk and Resilience in Ghana incl. NDCs Presentation 2: Mainstreaming Climate Risks in Power Sector 3 Presentation 2: Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Resilience 3 Risk and Resiliency Report: Climate Risks to the Power Sector
4 Small Group Exercise & Presentation: Identifying and Prioritizing Climate Risks
5 Risk and Resiliency Report & Presentation: Building Climate Resilience into the Power Sector
6 Small Group Exercise: Identifying Adaptation Measures for Priority Climate Risks

Facilitator Daniel Benefor, Principal Program Officer; EPA Kennedy Amankwah, Energy Commission Charlotte Norman; Director of Climate Change Adaptation; NADMO Molly Hellmuth, Senior Technical Specialist, Africa Climate Resilience Lead; ICF Molly Hellmuth, Senior Technical Specialist, Africa Climate Resilience Lead; ICF Molly Hellmuth, Senior Technical Specialist, Africa Climate Resilience Lead; ICF Molly Hellmuth, Senior Technical Specialist, Africa Climate Resilience Lead; ICF

2 Key Activities of the Day
The key activities of the day included presentations and the group exercises.

2.1 Discussions
The main discussions in the workshop centred on the presentations and the group exercises. The participants were allowed to ask the presenters several questions relating to the topics presented. In addition to the main presentations, presentations on the output of the group exercises were made, and interrogated by the members of the other groups.

2.2 Key Issues Raised During Presentations and Deliberations
The key issues raised in the presentations on the various topics are indicated in Table 2 below.

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Table 2: Key Issues raised during the presentations

No. Issue

Response

A. Presentation by EPA

1 What is EPA doing about the sulphur

EPA: The GSA, OMCs, TOR, and NPA are

content of our fuel?

working to reduce the sulphur content of the

fuel. The current standard is 50ppm but in the

future EPA is working towards 10ppm. The

50ppm should have been implemented in

August 2017 but it has been put on hold until

the end of 2017.

2 IRRP: What is the currency of the

EPA: It is in US dollars

budgeted 22billion?

3 JICA: Do the relevant Agencies have the EPA: The EPA relies fully on the energy

capacity to collect accurate data which is balance data produced by the EC, which the EC

disaggregated into the emissions

collected from the utilities.

contribution from the various sectors?

4 IRRP: What are the conditional actions EPA: The conditional actions are extensive and

that will help achieve the targeted 45%

will be shared with the IRRP team in due

reduction?

course.

5 JICA: How are the relevant institutions on EPA: Data collection is a challenge in this

sectoral contributions to GHG emissions? country, nonetheless the EPA collects emission

data from the energy balance prepared by the

Energy Commission.

B. Presentation by the EC

6 Swiss Embassy: It is imperative for the

technocrats to sensitize the political

leadership on the benefits of the climate

mitigation and adaptation, because they

are key stakeholders in the

implementations of interventions.

7 EPA: There is the need for concerted

efforts by all stakeholders to mitigate the

risks associated with climate change. The

technocrats, politicians, and all other

stakeholders should play their respective

roles to ensure that the goals and

objectives of the climate interventions are

realized.

C Presentation by NADMO

8 IRRP: How did NAMDO define

NADMO: “Drought” was defined as about

“drought” in the ARC?

10days of no rain before the planting season,

which essentially means long dry spells

9 ECOBANK: What is the medium by

NADMO: It was done via phone call

which NADMO received the early weather

signals from GNET?

D Presentation on Findings From the Climate Risk and Resilience Report

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No. Issue 10 EPA: Considering the poor drainage
system in Ghana, how can the floods in Accra be attributed to the effects of climate change or otherwise
11 EPA: How can modelling be used to minimize the uncertainty in rainfall and other weather patterns?
12 EPA: What indicators were used in the analysis, which put Ghana in the top 20 most vulnerable countries to the impact of climate change?
13 Swiss Embassy: What is the impact of Geo-engineering the climate change and was it taken into consideration in the climate assessment of Ghana?
14 IRRP Modeling Consultant: Given the significant infrastructural development along the coast, it is acceptable to attribute sea level rise to only climate change?

Response It is important to recognize the impact of land use and other factors on flooding. One way is to take the difference between exposures and adaptive capacity. The non-climate issues only exacerbate the climatic impacts. It is therefore imperative to recognize the impact of changes in climate to flooding, while addressing the non-climate issues to minimize the effect. IRRP: There will always be uncertainties. However, this can be reduced progressively with the continual acquisition of better data, which will result in better decision making It’s a combination of indicators which include, amongst others agriculture as a share of GDP, Adaptive capacity, vulnerability index, exposure sensitivity, etc. IRRP: This is a deviation from the focus of this workshop so may not be helpful to include that in the discussions here. Again, it was not taken into consideration in the climate risks and assessment report because it is not relevant. IRRP: There is no identified causality between infrastructural development along the sea and sea level rise.

2.3 Exercises at the workshop
One key aspect of the training workshop was the three group exercises by the participants. These were on:
 Identifying and Prioritizing Climate Risks: Small Group Exercise & Presentation  : Building Climate Resilience into the Power Sector: Risk and Resiliency Report &
Presentation  Identifying Adaptation Measures for Priority Climate Risks: Small Group Exercise
All the exercises were facilitated by the Senior Technical Specialist, Africa Climate Resilience Lead; ICF. The participants were divided into four groups for these exercises. After the deliberations, each group presented a summary of their findings. The results of these presentations are discussed in the next section.

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2.3.1 Results of Group Exercises: The results of the group exercises were as presented below.

Historical Climate Risks to Power Systems

This section summaries the discussions and results from the four groups on this exercise.

Group No. Group 1

Output
 Group 1 identified “Extreme rainfall and flooding on hydro” as Priority 1 in terms of historical risk to power in Ghana. The reason being that, high levels of rainfall will affect the water levels of the dam, which under extreme cases, spilling might not be enough to curtail the potential damage. The floods could also affect the switchyard infrastructure which are located downstream. Extreme rainfall and flooding also affect thermal generation plants as well as substations and other transmission and distribution infrastructure. It could also result in damage to renewable energy infrastructure. During periods of extreme rainfall and flooding, demand for electricity may reduce.

Trend with climate change
 Effects of Extreme rainfall and flooding on: o hydro will worsen; o Thermal generation could worsen or improve o Renewables will worsen o T&D will worsen o Demand will improve

 The second priority area for Group 1 was the

 Effect of “Temperature”

effect of “Temperature on Transmission and

on:

Distribution”. With long periods of high

o Hydro will worsen

temperature, transmission and distribution lines

o Thermal generation

expand leading to high transmission and

will worsen

distribution losses. The lines also sag more. Aside

o Renewables will

from this, high temperatures also cause

worsen

evapotranspiration, which results in a reduced

o T&D will worsen

amount of water in water sources. High

o Demand will

temperature also means more effort needed to cool

worsen

thermal plants, thereby affecting the efficiency of

the equipment. High temperatures also reduce the

efficiency of solar PVs and also shortens the

lifespan of the batteries. It also negatively affects

the growth of biomass. In high temperatures,

demand for electricity increases.

 Third priority was the effect of “drought on hydro”. This is because electricity generation is reduced as a result of low inflows into the dam. This also results in the cavitation of the runners and damage to the blades. Further, drought will increase the competition for water for cooling of thermal plants. It will also result in accumulation

 Effect of “drought” on: o Hydro could worsen or improve
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Group No.

Output
of dust on solar PVs and also impedes the growth of biomass. Drought also results in suppressed demand.

Trend with climate change

 The fourth priority here was “temperature on

thermal”. This is because the efficiency of plants

is affected when the temperature of the

atmospheric air increases.

Group  The first priority of this group was the effect of

2

“drought on hydro”. This is because of potential

decreased generation due to low availability of

water, coupled with increased competition for

limited water resources.

The drought conditions will also result in

decreased bioenergy generation, potential bush

fires could also damage transmission and

distribution lines.

 Effect of temperature on:

 The second priority is the effect of temperature on

o Hydro will improve

demand. Extended periods of sustained high

o Thermal generation

temperatures will result in increased demand for

will worsen

power for cooling.

o Renewables will

worsen

o T&D will worsen

o Demand will

worsen

 The third priority was extreme rainfall and

flooding on Transmission & Distribution. This is

because extreme rainfall will cause erosion of

transmission pylons. A classic example is when

extreme flooding in Northern Ghana in 1998

caused distribution poles to tilt. Another case of

flooding at Ofankor caused damage to the

substation and resulted in interruption in supplies.

Extreme rainfall also poses risks to the dam. An

example is when the Akosombo dam spilled in

November 2010 and in 1992.

 Effect of water flow,

 The fourth priority is the water flow, volume, and

volume, and timing on

timing on hydro. Here, inflows into the dam will

hydro will worsen

be affected and this has a consequential effect on

the amount power produced. It will also result in a

shift in the operational rules of the hydro facility.

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Group No. Group 3

Output
 The first priority is Temperature on Demand. Demand increases with increase in temperature Temperature also causes evaporation in water bodies, decreases the efficiency of thermal plants due to increased temperature of the water used in the cooling. High temperatures may also increase the pressure of fuels used in thermal generation. On the other hand, high temperatures can improve the energy generated by solar PVs. High temperatures can also decrease the capacity and lifespan of transmission infrastructure. High temperatures result in increased demand.

Trend with climate change
 Effect of temperature on: o Hydro could worsen or improve o Thermal generation will worsen o Renewables will worsen o T&D will worsen o Demand will worsen

 The second priority is drought on hydro. Here increased drought results in reduction in hydro potential, reduce the amount of water available for cooling.

 The third priority is extreme rainfall, largely because it leads to spillage of dams, increased cloud cover due to rainfall, which decreases the amount of energy generated by solar PVs, causes damage to T&D infrastructure – NEDCO lost a 100 poles in 2016 to extreme rainfall.

Group  The first priority is drought on hydro. The reason

4

being that drought will affect water level and

availability.

Drought will also result in less water available for

cooling of thermal plants.

 The second priority is drought on T&D.
 The third priority is Extreme rainfall on T&D. Extreme rainfall causes sedimentation of dams. It also causes outages due to power lines falling down and flooding o substations.
 The fourth is Temperature on demand. Extreme temperature will affect water levels due to evaporation. It also affects the efficiency of power plants, and causes power lines to sag.

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Selecting Resilience Measures
The four groups were assigned climate stressors to identify potential residence measures based on policies & plans, technologies, operations and Maintenance, and Structural. The results of this exercise are as indicated in Table 6 in Appendix C. The four climate stressors assigned to the groups were:
i. Water flow volume and timing on hydropower; ii. Extreme rainfall and flooding on Transmission and Distribution; iii. Drought and high temperature on Transmission and Distribution; and iv. Drought on hydropower.

The discussions on these four climate stressors are indicated below:

Table 3: Resilience Measures Discussed by the four groups

Policies and Plans Technologies

Operations and

Maintenance

1. Water flow volume and timing of hydropower

Measure:

Measure:

Measure:

Depends on the

- Gauging of

- Proper care

meteorological

weather

given to

services to aid in

stations

measuring

forecasting. Adopt

- Modelling

instruments from

an integrated

tools

gauging and

forecast plan

weathering

(Water Flow

stations

Volume)

- Data verification

Structural

Advantages: Reduced uncertainty
Barriers: Adequate capacity

Advantages: - Real time values for inflows - Modelling helps in planning for generation - Cost/capacity

Advantages/Barriers: - Keeps the system fully functional - Operation builds confidence in the system - Cost/proper operation and maintenance ethics

2. Extreme rainfall and flooding on Transmission and distribution

Measure:

Measure:

Measure:

Institution of

Proper drainage

policies and plans to Early automated

maintenance and clearing

map out high prone warning systems

of environs of T&D

areas to guide the

infrastructure in rainy

siting of T&D

Auto-restoration of

season

facilities

infrastructure after

rainfall or flooding

Measure: - Elevation and relocation of existing infrastructure - Replacement of wooden

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RainfallDemandPriorityTemperatureHydro