NSS Conventions - National Speleological Society

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NSS Conventions - National Speleological Society

Transcript Of NSS Conventions - National Speleological Society

Survey & Cartography Session Abstracts
NSS Conventions
This file contains the abstracts for presentations in the Survey & Cartography and related sessions at National Speleological Society conventions. The abstracts are in year order. The file is searchable.


Year Location


1963 Mountain Lake, VA


1969 Lovell, WY


1970 State College, PA


1974 Decorah, IA


1976 Morgantown, WV


1983 Elkins, WV


1984 Sheridan, WY


1985 Frankfort., KY


1986 Tularosa, NM


1987 Sault Ste Marie, MI


1988 Hot Springs, SD


1989 Sewanee, TN


1990 Yreka, CA


1991 Cobleskill, NY


1992 Salem, IN


1993 Pendleton, OR


1994 Brackettville, TX


1995 Blacksburg, VA


1996 Salida, CO


1997 Sullivan, MO


1998 Sewanee, TN


1999 Twin Falls, ID


2000 Dailey, WV


Year Location


2001 Rock Castle Co., KY 32

2002 Camden, ME


2003 Porterville, CA


2004 Marquette, MI


2005 Huntsville, AL


2006 Bellingham, WA


2007 Marengo, IN


2008 Lake City, FL


2009 Kerrville, TX


2010 Essex Junction, VT 45

2011 Glenwood Springs, CO 45

2012 Lewisburg, WV


2013 Shippensburg, PA


2014 Huntsville, AL


2015 Waynesville, MO


2016 Ely, NV


2017 Rio Rancho, NM


2018 Helena, MT


2019 Cookeville, TN


2020 no NSS convention

2021 no NSS convention

2022 Rapid City, SD


Prepared by Bob Hoke and Bob Thrun Last revised on June 23, 2022

Survey & Cartography Session Abstracts

1963 NSS CONVENTION ABSTRACTS (Mountain Lake, Virginia)
A Mapping Technique for Maze Caves, Developed in Anvil Cave, Alabama
William W. Varnedoe
In the course of mapping Anvil Cave, Alabama, the Huntsville Grotto of the National Speleological Society evolved a technique for rapidly mapping large areas of this maze pattern cave. Using this technique about 13 miles of Anvil Cave have been plotted.

SPELEOMAP V and VI, Cave Mapping Programs
Charles A. Plantz and Victor A. Schmidt
These two programs take raw survey data, compute the coordinates of the stations, and plot a skeleton map of the cave on a Calcomp plotter. A corrected version of the map, in which all closure errors are corrected by a least squares procedure, is also computed and plotted. Speleomap VI, which will hopefully be debugged by convention time, includes advanced plotting features and the ability to take survey sight data cards in any order.
Ordered Loop Systems and Associated Error Minimization of Brunton Cave Survey by Computer
James M. Hardy

Data Retrieval and Cave Files
W. W. Varnedore, Jr.
The sheer mass of data in state cave survey files and the NSS cave files makes finding a specific piece of information a formidable task. A technique of encoding the data to compress it and of using automation to order it for specific indices is presented.
ASCDIF – A Proposed American Standard Cave Data Input Format
Robert G. Babb II
Motivation is presented for establishing an American standard format for key-punching Brunton survey data. One possible data acquisition system is proposed. The system consists of a survey form for recording the data and a variety of standard program cards for key-punching data from the form. If the system gains acceptance, the author offers to write standard input routines in ASA FORTRAN and Algol so that a minimum of reprogramming of existing survey programs would be necessary to convert them to accept ASCDIF.

This paper will discuss an algorithm for obtaining minimum loop systems and their associated line networks in undirected line topologies. It will cover the resulting error analysis found in actual Brunton cave surveys. A system for minimizing the resultant error by varying the base loops will also be presented.
Keytape Systems and their Possible Effect on the Proposed Cave File Formats
M. J. Stupak
This report is in no ways a recommendation for any proposed format or tape system. It is merely a report on the advancement of the state of the art and its possible effects on the present and proposed systems.
1970 NSS CONVENTION ABSTRACTS (State College, Pennsylvania)
What Ought a Cave Map to Show?
James Hedges

Published cave maps often contain so little detail that they are of slight use to persons not familiar with the caves shown. Only a little more effort would be required to clothe passage outlines with geographic, geologic, biologic, and meteorologic


Survey & Cartography Session Abstracts

data basic to the work of many specialists. Draughtsmen (and map users) often are hampered by the lack of enough commonly accepted symbols which adequately portray the significant features of caves. A revised, expanded list of cave map symbols is offered to supplant the NSS Standard Map Symbols of 1961. Even the most detailed cave map will not be an effective vehicle of communication if it is cluttered, cramped, or lettered poorly or is in other ways offensive to the eye. Cave cartographers should strive to produce maps which convey information in a graceful manner.

lower left comer of the sheet, and the physical dimensions of the topographic map (i.e., the width at the top and bottom of the map and its height) . For each cave an identification number, distances of the cave location from the left and bottom margins of the map and an estimate of an accuracy tolerance are fed into the program as input data.
Each topographic map is treated as a trapezoid and coordinates in degrees, minutes, and seconds are calculated based on this geometry. Batch processing will print out a list of the caves and their coordinates for each topographic sheet requested.

The Laser as a Cave-Surveying Instrument
Frank S. Reid and Richard J. Blenz
Preliminary tests having indicated the usefulness of a small helium-neon laser in several cave surveying applications, a cave-portable system has been designed. The laser adapts readily to leveling and plane table operations, solving problems encountered when look-through optical instruments are used in a dark environment. The laser beam’s brilliance and non-divergence make it extremely useful in making sightings at very long range. With the addition of mirrors and other simple parts, angle-measuring devices and a parallax-type range finder can be built. The problems of cost, bulk, and power supply are expected to diminish with the advancement of laser technology.
Determining Longitude and Latitude of Cave Locations by Computer Methods
Ernst H. Kastning
Often the longitude and latitude of cave entrances are tabulated as part of a regional survey of caves. These coordinates are usually determined by reading them on a USGS topographic survey map upon which the cave location has been marked. Since the topo sheets are not graduated in seconds of arc, each location must be determined with either a specially scaled ruler or by mathematical computation.
A method which eliminates the tedium of hand calculation is presented here and is easily applicable to computer data processing. Human errors are thereby minimized. Inputs to the program are the topo sheet series (7.5-, 15-, 30-minute, etc.) , the coordinates in degrees, minutes and seconds for the

Computer Programs for Cave Survey
Robert Thrun
Computer programs for reducing cave survey data. The state of the art is emphasized, avoiding mechanical details. Topics will be: type of computer, size of program, kinds of input data, methods of detecting closures, methods of processing closures, types of output. Sample runs are invited.
1976 NSS CONVENTION ABSTRACTS (Morgantown, West Virginia)
Electromagnetic Locating, an Accuracy Evaluation
Charles S. Bishop and Frank S Reid
Horizontal positions and depths of underground points can be obtained using electromagnetic locating equipment. Accuracy of the results obtained has been mostly speculative in the past. During 1975, work was conducted to obtain quantitative values for the errors associated with positions and depths obtained using this equipment. Sixty Locations were made at Blue Springs Cave, Indiana, and Mammoth Cave, Kentucky, determining both horizontal position and depth. These results were then compared with similar results obtained from precise surveys. The surveys were to a precision exceeding 1:5000 but less than


Survey & Cartography Session Abstracts

1:10,000 for horizontal position. Elevation differences were based on leveling that exceeded third order accuracy requirements.
The accuracy of horizontal positions obtained is directly related to depth. At depths of less than 100 feet, errors in horizontal position of less than 0.5 feet resulted. At 200 feet in depth, the error in horizontal position averaged 7.0 feet. Depth determinations were consistently less than the actual value. At a depth of 74 feet, the determined depth was 97.6% of the actual value, and at 200 feet, 95% of the actual value was obtained.
Results of this project indicate that there are limitations to the capabilities of this type of equipment. The quantitative values for the errors are directly related to depth and the associated factors of signal strength, null width, and atmospheric noise. With the limiting factors known, it will be possible to better plan the use of electromagnetic locating equipment to obtain the most accurate results for controlling and checking cave surveys.
1983 NSS CONVENTION ABSTRACTS (Elkins, West Virginia)
An Application of Interactive Graphics to the Study of Caves
Fred L. Wefer, John W. Igoe, and P. Ann Gillen
A 3-D interactive computer graphics program designed to aid in the study of the geomorphology of caves is presented. The program provides three basic types of operations: dynamic, function, and script. Dynamic operations include the ability to scale, rotate, and translate the 3-D map interactively. Digital readouts indicate the scales, viewing angles, and the map coordinates at the center of the view. Function operations include the ability to make visible or invisible various portions of the display (that is, fiducial marks, grids, topographic overlays, north arrows, etc.), to produce hard copies of the display, and to perform complete predefined dynamic oscillations in pitch, yaw, and roll. Script operations provide the ability to interactively define, edit, and run movies composed of sequences of dynamic and function operations using the technique of key-frame animation. Topics covered in the presentation include: the user interface, data

input methods, the graphics software and hardware employed, and video recording techniques. Examples of the program output feature the Butler Cave-Sinking Creek System in west-central Virginia. The presentation is made using color plotter output, color slides, and video tapes.
Results of the DC Grotto Compass Course
Bob Thrun and Tom Kaye
Members of the DC Grotto set up a compass course to calibrate their instruments. This paper discusses results of analysis of over 1,600 compass observations made on the course. Data were analyzed for the entire population and for various subsets such as individual readers, individual compasses, types of instruments, etc. Implications of the results in actual cave surveys are discussed.
CAVPT: Cartography by Computer
Don Conover
Adding the third Dimension to a cave map gives a more accurate representation of the relative height and depth of cave passages. This is particularly helpful in the study of the hydrology of a particular cave system. The maps also show the multiple levels of the passages relative to each other in the cave system. The program was originally written for an IBM 1130 and the results were plotted on a CALCOMP 718 flatbed plotter. The program has also been on an AMDAHL 470 and a CDC 6600. The plots have been output on CALCOMP pen plotters, VERSATEC electrostatic plotters, and TEKTRONICS CRT's (using PLOT 10 routines).
Advanced Computer Graphics Techniques
Paul Hill
The use of state-of-the-art graphics hardware and software allows some very interesting cave maps to be generated. A number of computer generated cave maps will be displayed and the techniques for their generation discussed.


Survey & Cartography Session Abstracts

An Integrated System for Processing Cave Survey Data
Douglas P. Dotson
Recent trends in small computer systems technology has brought reasonable computing power at low cost to many cavers. Other than the clerical applications of these computers, the most popular use of computers in caving is survey data analysis. Most existing software operates by placing the raw survey data in a file using text editor or word processor, and then using the file as input to a BASIC or FORTRAN program. The following paper describes an integrated system which supports all phases of cave survey data analysis. Although not entirely implemented, the described system handles data entry, analysis, loop closing, plotting and survey file maintenance.
1984 NSS CONVENTION ABSTRACTS (Sheridan, Wyoming)
Algorithms for Getting Out of a Cave
Richard L. Breisch
Five different algorithms for finding one’s way out of a maze (or a cave) have been published in the literature of the mathematical specialty of graph theory. Three more methods have been devised by the author. Each algorithm is a set of simple rules which allow a person, who has no knowledge of the organization of the cave passages, to eventually find his way to an entrance.
Which algorithm is the most efficient? How can one compare the relative efficiency of a set of algorithms? Is one particular algorithm more (or less) efficient than the others?
The work to date has centered on defining precise measures of efficiency and using these to compare the algorithms. These procedures have been applied to caves small enough so that the measures of efficiency can be calculated exactly by hand.
It may be too hard to obtain can exact evaluation of the measures of efficiency when the algorithms are applied to large maze caves, so the next step of this investigation is to evaluate the measures on a computer using the Monte Carlo method. To do this, the cave is first described in the computer.

Each algorithm is implemented with a subroutine. A random number generator is used to select the passage for the lost person to try. The rules of the algorithm under test are applied, and the distance traversed from the start to an entrance is tabulated. This is repeated a large number of times, say 1,000 to 10,000, for each algorithm. Estimates of the measures of efficiency can be calculated from these repeated trials
Database Management for Cave Inventory
Dave Derowitsch
A database management system has been developed that is capable of storing and retrieving pertinent information on caves. Data can be stored as unencoded unique entries or as encoded categories. Fast, efficient multiple field searches are implemented through the use of modified binary search trees on the unencoded fields and linked lists on the encoded fields. The system is easily adapted to a wide range of hardware since all hardware specific code is contained in a few small routines that perform the logical to physical translation. The supporting configuration and utilities programs allow the user to easily design, install, and subsequently modify a specific database.
A Final Report on the SMAPS Cave Survey System
Doug Dotson
At the 1983 Convention I presented a talk describing the initial efforts in the development of an integrated system for the reduction of cave survey data for microcomputers. This project, the Survey Manipulation, Analysis, and Plotting System (SMAPS), is now complete. This final report will discuss the features of SMAPS, the design philosophy chosen, and the problems encountered during the development of the system.
An Analysis of Survey Compass Errors
Tom Kaye and Bob Hoke
At the 1983 NSS Convention Tom Kaye and Bob Thrun presented preliminary results of a study of over 1,600 observations with various types of survey compasses under controlled conditions. This paper extends the analysis and compares the expected


Survey & Cartography Session Abstracts

accuracy of the different types of instruments. The human factor in surveying is also analyzed by comparing the instrument reading accuracy of different personnel under the same test conditions.
Cave Modeling
Kirsten Stork
Surface modeling has been receiving increased attention within the computer community in the last few years. This led to the project of creating a cave modeling system, the first stage of which is presented here.
In this system, the user is provided with a threedimensional representation of the survey data as well as an interpretation of these data with walls instead of the simple survey skeleton. It is assumed that the data include measurements from a survey point to the left and right wall as well as to the ceiling and floor.
In addition, an editor is incorporated to allow interactively changing the cave walls. Initially, the editing features have been limited to adding, moving, and deleting wall points.
The Surveyors vs. the Software
Paul A. Hill
Today many surveyors are using computers to reduce cave survey data. The computer user is presented with the problem, on the one hand, of duplicating the data in the computer in a form similar to what was originally recorded and, on the other hand, formatting the data for use by the cave survey software.
Because of the diversity of caves, the cavers, and the uses of the data, it seems an unwise and an impossible task to attempt to standardize cave survey data formats. Given this situation, what is needed is a translator that can understand a wide range of cave survey formats and convert the data to a form understood by different cave survey programs.
A parser specifically designed to convert a multitude of data formats, as entered directly from survey notes, to a multitude of alternate formats for later processing has been constructed. The syntactic properties of cave data including many real examples will be discussed to show that the

possibilities, while varied, fall within limits that are predictable and reasonable.
The functions of the translator that was built will be presented to show how data in a mostly original form can be combined with commands to the translator in a way that is both readable by the average cave surveyor and understandable by a reasonable size computer program.
An Analysis of Instrument Reading Errors in Cave Surveys
Bob Hoke
Analysis of data gathered at a survey contest held at the 1983 (West Virginia) Old Timer’s Reunion revealed an unexpected number of blunders by experienced cave surveyors. Although the contest was held under near optimal conditions, the 39 contestants made over 25 significant errors in reading their instruments. This paper describes these blunders and makes a strong argument for using backsights to detect blunders before leaving the cave. An analysis of the inclination errors (all of which were on Suunto instruments) indicates that a modification to the scale markings (by the manufacturer) might make the instrument less prone to reading errors.
An Overview of Cave Survey Project Data Management Techniques
George Dasher
This short paper will provide a brief synopsis of the different survey data management techniques incorporated in mapping caves of short, intermediate, and long length. The discussion will center on computer and non-computer compiling and storage of the coordinate data, as well as the closing of major loops within a cave system, survey quality control, personal attitudes toward cave mapping, personnel management, and potential and prevalent problems encountered by cave surveyors. Survey programs for both in-house computers and hand-held programmable calculators will be available for inspection. In addition, slides will be shown and there will be ample opportunities for interested persons to ask questions.


Survey & Cartography Session Abstracts

Xanadu: Survey and Cartography Considerations of a Multi-Level. Multi-Mile
Cave System
Charles Clark
Xanadu Cave runs for better than 23 miles beneath the slopes of the Obey River gorge in Fentress County, Tennessee. Yet, this entire system is contained underneath an escarpment with a total linear extent of just over one mile. Xanadu’s entire expanse is contained within two-tenths of a square mile. Obviously, such a dense concentration of cave passage on multi-levels creates serious obstacles to the cave mapper in: 1) organizing his survey and 2) drafting his cave map.
Xanadu has been organized for exploration and survey purposes into three major sections (Xanadu, Zoroaster, and Alph) and six subsections. Each section is surveyed and plotted by a master surveyor, and each section is plotted on separate section maps as well as the comprehensive Xanadu map.
The survey and map project has fallen upon the shoulders of two chief surveyors, project head Jeff Sims, and Charles Clark. Each surveyor has separate in-cave and cartography responsibilities. As the survey nears completion the question of how to produce the final map arises. Jeff Sims advocates publication of the comprehensive Xanadu map, while Charles Clark advocates publication of a portfolio of section maps. Questions of map use, sublimity, or practicality will one day determine which map will prevail.
Projection Techniques and Map Construction
Stephen Attaway
Correlating the entrance locations and principal passage orientations of different caves with their topographic and geographic environment is an important contribution to understanding the geomorphology of caves. One method of achieving these correlations is to produce maps that depict surface topography, cave entrance locations, and horizontal projections of major cave passages. The maps may be examined to visually interpret trends among these parameters. The author has developed a Fortran computer program that will use a large, high-resolution vector plotter to generate overlay maps that depict cave entrance locations and their

associated map. The overlay maps are constructed using the same projection techniques used by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to make standard 7’30” polyconic topographic maps and the larger 1:1,000,000 metric Universal Transverse Mercator topographic maps. One may accurately superimpose the overlay maps on standard USGS topographic maps. In addition, programs were developed to produce large-scale maps of cave entrance locations based on projection techniques that do not yield area distortions. This paper presents the fundamental ideas and the equations needed to formulate these types of computer programs for cave entrance locations based on latitude and longitude. Large scale maps of Tennessee, Alabama, and Georgia are used to present the distribution of caves with documented locations in those states.
1985 NSS CONVENTION ABSTRACTS (Frankfort, Kentucky)
A Fortran Survey Program with Plotting Routine
Roger V. Bartholomew
A Fortran cave-survey program is described which Incorporates plotting routine which. gives a rough plot of the last digit of each survey station in its approximate position on one page of the output. The program alternates on page of input data with one page of computations which include not only x, y and z coordinates, but also, the horizontal polar vector with an angle that can be used for plotting with a protractor and ruler. A coding system allows a survey over a level body of water in the cave to be done without using vertical angle measurements. The program also prints the z coordinate in meters. Another feature allows the correction of individual sightings for changes in the magnetic declination when the survey extends over several years.
Cave Cartography by Computer
Don Conover
Adding the third dimension to a cave map gives a more accurate representation of the relative height and depth of cave passages. This is particularly helpful in the study of the hydrology of a particular cave system. The maps also show the multiple levels


Survey & Cartography Session Abstracts

of the passages relative to each other in the cave system. The computer program draws the passage walls and ceiling in the shape of the cross-section of the passage.
The SMAPS Program
Doug Dotson
The SMAPS system is an interactive integrated system which supports all phases of cave survey data reduction. It has been implemented to allow portability to a wide variety of computer systems from mid-sized microcomputers to large mainframes. Since its introduction at the 1983 NSS convention, SMAPS has received much attention throughout the caving community and many suggestions have been made regarding improvements. As a result of this feedback, major design changes have been implemented. This presentation will discuss both the successful and unsuccessful Improvements to the SMAPS system as well as the techniques used in their implementation.

typically require hundreds to thousands of bytes per instance (node, frame, rule, etc.). This paper describes a knowledge representation scheme appropriate for a small portable computer.
Because of its hierarchical nature, cave knowledge, including implicit knowledge assumed by current survey data techniques and geological and biological knowledge, is easily represented by semantic net. By using a system of attribute chaining and adding the notion of frame slots, a conventional semantic net can be modified to optimize memory requirements. Arcs are implemented as a linked list of typed pointers, and nodes are data structures whose elements (slots) are defined by parallel nodes in another network partition.
Although the original intent of this design was to represent specific knowledge about a cave, it proved to be effective for other aspects of knowledge processing, allowing a common set of operators to be used. The final network is partitioned into specific knowledge, production rules and scripts, dynamic blackboards, metaknowledge and node descriptions.

PGD – Printer Graphic Driver
Robert Thrun
Drawing lines on paper is an essential part of cave survey data reduction. The lack of suitable commercial software for doing this was the motivation for writing the Printer Graphics Driver. It reads a file with coordinates of line endings and produces line plots on the printer. The textbook algorithms fail to consider the real world limitations of microcomputer systems. PGD produces large plots, at high resolution, with full printer speed, using limited memory. This paper describes the design considerations that went into the program.
A Partitioned Semantic Net Design for Field Computer Applications
Duane Vore
A pad of paper and a pencil are a more practical incave data system than a computer unless the computer’s programming is able to assist the caver by making inferences of the data and drawing conclusions. Artificial intelligence technology can reach this goal, but current environments for its development like LISP, Smalltalk, and OP55

1986 NSS CONVENTION ABSTRACTS (Tularosa, New Mexico)
A Look at Compass and Clinometer Error in the OTR Survey Course
John Ganter
Data from the survey courses held at the 1983 and 1984 WV Old Timers Reunions was examined in an attempt to determine the types and sources of error present. Both populations of readings for specific instruments and shots and traverse misclosures were considered. Systematic error became visible when individual instruments were compared over populations of both shots and users. Random error is more elusive, but its magnitude appears to decrease with user experience, and increase with both shot inclination and shot length. Oddly enough, the relationship between a user’s total deviations from the averages established by his fellows, and his resulting traverse misclosure, appears to be weak. Larger samples and better course design will be required to explain these relationships more clearly.


Survey & Cartography Session Abstracts

Laser Profiles of Cave Passages
Bob Buecher
Several methods are described for using a small, battery powered, Helium-Neon LASER to determine ceiling heights, cross-sections and passage profiles in caves.
The methods discussed all involve using the LASER to project a small, bright point of light that is used as a target; normal cave surveying instruments are used to determine the position of the target.
The four methods that have been used to assess the usefulness of the LASER in cave surveying are: (1)
Right triangle ceiling height determination; (2) Simultaneous Triangulation with two instruments; (3) Intersecting the plane formed by rotating the LASER about a fixed axis; (4) Use of an Optical Rangefinder and LASER target.
Cave Mapping System, Version IV.4
Steve Peerman
CMS allows a user to build files of cave survey data containing for each record, the name of the present and previous station, the distance, azimuth and elevation from the previous to the present station, the X, Y, and Z (E-W, N-S, and Vertical) coordinates of the present station, and finally the left wall, right wall, floor and ceiling distances from the present station.
Various routines allow the user to enter, modify, display, print out, or make maps from the data. In data entry, users may use feet and inches, feet, or meters; directions may be in azimuth or bearing form; backsight data may be included, and instrument and light height may be recorded and accounted for. Comments may be imbedded anywhere between records of data.
Data modification options allow conversion from feet to meters (or vice-versa), loop closure; data entry error correction, loop closure, data entry error correction, changes to azimuth values in entire files (for declination corrections, etc.). All files may be displayed on the screen printed out at the users option.
The user may display or print out stick maps based upon the files created. Plan views and profile views can be made. Plan views can be oriented in any

direction, drawn to any scale, and centered about any point. Profiles can be along any axis, drawn to any scale, and centered on any point. The user may include scale grids or station names on the maps if he wishes. The user may also display or print out rose charts showing distributions of shot directions.
1987 NSS CONVENTION ABSTRACTS (Sault Ste Marie, Michigan
Working Drawings for Show Cave Development
Russell H. Gurnee
Show cave development is the modification of a natural cave to provide a supervised, safe, and satisfying educational experience for the public. There are less than seven hundred caves open to the public in the world today. However, there are three times that many that were opened, modified, then closed. There are no schools or classes to aid the aspiring designer. In fact, most of the caves open to the public have been first-time efforts of the designer, architect, and workmen. Sort of like do-ityourself brain surgery.
An operational program was used on three projects where the design was the result of the cooperation of individual specialists to achieve the best results. To show the relationship of the designer to the work crew plans and specifications are available for the following caves:
Harrison’s Cave, Barbados, W.I. Rio Camuy Empalme Cave, Hatillo, Puerto Rico The Fountain, Anguilla, British West Indies
Controlling Survey Accuracy
Ray Cole
In completing a large cave survey like the Caves of the Organ Caves Plateau the first question asked by a potential user of the caver produced surveys is about the relative accuracy of the passages and geological features. To help control the levels of error and estimate their magnitude requires a combination of accurate surface surveys, cave radio locations, and computer processing. A method was developed for estimating potential survey error


Survey & Cartography Session Abstracts

based on the string closure adjustments of the highly constrained survey data.
Ohio Cave Survey
H. H. Hobbs III
For the past eight years the Ohio Cave Survey (OCS) has been an active organization. Physiochemical and biological sampling have been important aspects of the OCS as well as surveying. The caves of the state have never been documented other than lists made by a few individuals, thus much above ground as well as subterranean field work has been and continues to be a necessary part of the OCS. At present, 107 caves have been mapped or are in various stages of completion. Many of the maps have been published in the Wittenburg University Speleological Society journal, “Pholeos.”
Large Cave Survey Management
Jim Borden
The Central Kentucky Karst Coalition (CKKC) has been surveying the caves of Toohey Ridge since 1974. The most notable of the caves has been Roppel Cave which was connected to Mammoth Cave in 1983, creating a cave in excess of three hundred miles of passages. The CKKC has surveyed over sixty miles of cave in over 13,000 survey points.
The CKKC has fielded over 375 underground and surface surveys in four different caves. A logging system has been developed which catalogs notes, tracks ties between surveys, differentiates between multiple uses of survey letter designations, and provides accounting and organizational capabilities. All surveys are in one database, notes and trip reports are available to explorers and cartographers, and most survey errors have been detected and corrected.
Considering the tens of thousands of volunteer hours, expense, and sacrifice by a strong corps of volunteers, we try to insure the integrity of our efforts.

A Computer Applications System for the Processing of Cave Survey Data
Daniel A. Crowl
An advanced computer-based cave survey processing system if described. This system supports the following features:
1. flexible raw data processing supporting a wide variety of survey instrument configurations. 2. user friendly output with full commenting. 3. loop closure. 4. full database generation and manipulation. This significantly reduces processing time and provides enormous flexibility for later graphics processing. 5. an interface to a computer aided graphics system enabling production of high quality map sections in a short period of time. 6. quick turn-around of new survey data. The system is currently being used to support the Fisher Ridge, Roppel, and Crumps cave survey projects. This represents over 25,000 survey stations and 100 miles of cave.
1988 NSS CONVENTION ABSTRACTS (Hot Springs, South Dakota)
Karst Research and Knowledge: Do We Need Karst Information Systems?
John Ganter
Karst study, both as theoretical and applied research, and in the service of engineering, considers problems which are fundamentally spatial. Examination of three explanatory studies (at regional, karst basin and cave passage scales) reveals that information is dealt with at several logical and measurement levels, covers a remarkable size range, and is stored in a variety of formats. Hypothesis generation, induction, and analogous reasoning all seem to involve cognitive processing (setting up, refining and correcting a “mental model”), tacit thought (problem-solving drawing on short and long-term memory), and the generation of explicit knowledge in both propositional (text) and image form. A cycle ensues in which the geologist interacts with both this “created knowledge” and the phenomenon, testing and refining each against the other. The possibility of using digital means to provide increased interaction between geologist and