Originalarbeit The influence of foliar applied silicic acid

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Originalarbeit The influence of foliar applied silicic acid

Transcript Of Originalarbeit The influence of foliar applied silicic acid

JOURNAL FÜR KULTURPFLANZEN, 68 (1). S. 7–10, 2016, ISSN 1867-0911, DOI: 10.5073/JFK.2016.01.02 VERLAG EUGEN ULMER KG, STUTTGART
Margit Olle1, Ewald Schnug2

Originalarbeit

The influence of foliar applied silicic acid on N, P, K, Ca and Mg concentrations in field peas*
Einfluss von blattapplizierter Kieselsäure auf die N, P, K, Ca und Mg Gehalte von Felderbsen
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Abstract
Silicon (Si) is the second most abundant element after oxygen in soil. However, many field studies have shown that supplying crops with extra Si in form of finely dispersed SiO2 · n H2O (= silicic acid “dissolved” in water) suppresses plant disease, reduces insect attack, improves environmental stress tolerance, and increases crop productivity. *
The purpose of this investigation was to look at the influence of foliar applied silicic acid on the chemical content of field peas of variety Mehis. Silicic acid was applied as an aqueous spray applied in different concentrations from the 2–3 true leaf stage at two-week intervals from 21 May to 2 July 2014, in total 108 g ha–1 Si. Silicic acid partially improved the quality of field peas of variety Mehis by increasing phosphorus and potassium concentrations in the peas. It is suggested that foliar applied silicic acid may improve root growth through an improved phosphorus supply and also the water status of the plants through an improved potassium supply.
Key words: Calcium, magnesium, nitrogen, pea, Pisum sativum, phosphorus, potassium, silicic acid
Zusammenfassung
Silizium (Si) ist nach Sauerstoff das zweithäufigste Element in der Erdkruste. Dennoch belegen viele Feldversu-
*Paper presented at the 23thInternational Symposium of the International Scientific Centre for Fertilizers (CIEC) “Plant nutrition and fertilizer issues for the cold climates”, September 8–10, 2015 in Son, Norway

che, dass eine zusätzliche Zufuhr von Si in Form von fein dispersem SiO2 · n H2O (= in Wasser „gelöster“ Kieselsäure) Pflanzenkrankheiten und Schädlinge unterdrücken und die Wirkung von Umweltstress lindern und die Produktivität von Pflanzen steigern kann. Ziel dieser Untersuchung war es, den Einfluss ballapplizierter Kieselsäure auf die Versorgung von Erbsen der Sorte Mehis mit den Nährstoffen N, P, K, Ca und Mg als möglichen Wirkungspfad zu prüfen. Die Kieselsäure wurde in wässriger Dispersion in unterschiedlichen Konzentrationen zweiwöchentlich beginnend mit dem 2 bis 3-Blattstadium der Pflanzen appliziert. Die Behandlung verbesserte die Qualität der Erbsen und erhöhte deren Gehalte an Phosphor und Kalium. Eine verbesserte Phosphor- und Kaliumversorgung könnte daher eine der Ursachen für positive Wirkungen von Kieselsäureapplikationen sein.
Stichwörter: Erbse, Kalium, Kalzium, Kieselsäure, Magnesium, Phosphor, Stickstoff
Introduction
Silicon (Si) is the second most abundant element after oxygen in soil. Silicon dioxide comprises 50–70% of the soil mass. All plants rooting in soil contain some Si in their cells and tissues (OLLE, 2014).
Plant available silicon is often deficient in soils, ground water and the food chain, ultimately affecting animal and human health. It is reported that about 50–300 kg ha–1 of silicon is removed each year from arable soils during harvesting, cleaning and processing of crops (BENT, 2014).

Institute Estonian Crop Research Institute, Jogeva alevik, Estonia1 Julius Kühn-Institut, Federal Research Centre for Cultivated Plants, Institute of Crop and Soil Science, Braunschweig, Germany2
Correspondence Dr. Margit Olle, Estonian Crop Research Institute, J. Aamisepa 1, 48309, Jogeva alevik, Estonia, E-Mail: [email protected] Prof. Dr. mult. Ewald Schnug, Julius Kühn-Institut, Federal Research Centre for Cultivated Plants, Institute of Crop and Soil Science, Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig, Germany, E-Mail: [email protected]
Accepted 8 October 2015

Originalarbeit

MARGIT OLLE, EWALD SCHNUG, The influence of foliar applied silicic acid on …

However, many field studies have shown that supply- experimental design was used in 4 replications. Sowing

ing crops with adequate plant-available Si suppresses rate was 120 seeds per m² and sowing depth was 4 cm.

plant disease, reduces insect attack, improves environ- Plant spacing was 12.5 × 6.7 cm.

mental stress tolerance, and increases crop productivity A conventional cropping system was used. Ploughing

(HECKMAN, 2013). Silicon as a bioregulator has a potential was done in autumn 2013 and soil was cultivated twice

to help many crops grow more naturally in conditions of before sowing. The preceding crop was winter rye.

stress. Silicon plays important roles in mitigating both Soil humus content was 3.15 g kg–1 and pH was 5.76.

biotic (insects, pests, pathogens) and abiotic (metal, Soil type was soddy-calcareous podzolic soil, soil texture

salinity, drought, chilling, freezing) stresses (BENT, 2014; sandy-clay.

OLLE, 2014). Plants, if Si treated, become stronger, stur- There were two treatments: 1. stabilized silicic acid

dier and naturally more tolerant to dryness and drought, treatment (AB Yellow, REXIL-AGRO, 2015), 2. untreated

mineral imbalance and extremes of temperature (BENT, control. The silicic acid was applied as an aqueous spray

2014). Silicon application could therefore improve crop applied from the 2–3 real leaf stage at two-weekly inter-

production under extreme climatic conditions (SCHNUG vals on 21 May, 4 June, 18 June and 2 July 2014. The

and FRANCK, 1984; SHAKOOR, 2014). Bioactive silicon amounts sprayed were as follows: first spray 1.5 L ha–1

claims to help plants to take up more nutrients and utilize silicic acid and 750 L ha–1, second 3 L ha–1 silicic acid and

water and minerals more efficiently, reducing their re- 1500 L ha–1 water, third 4.5 L ha–1 silicic acid and 2250 L

quirements for water fertilizers and plant protection ha–1 water, fourth 4.5 L ha–1 silicic acid and 2250 L ha–1

8 chemicals during cultivation (BENT, 2014).

water. In total an amount of 108 g ha–1 Si was applied.

Several reports have reviewed the benefits of silicon The water used was demineralised with a neutral pH; the

application on crop growth, but the mechanisms of sili- pH of the spray solution was 5.5. Control plants were un-

con action have not been systematically discussed treated. Fertilization was done before sowing with Yara

(SCHNUG and FRANCK, 1984; ZHU and GONG, 2014).

Mila 7–12–25 (300 kg ha–1). Weeds were controlled with

As silicon nutrition reverses the succulence induced by Activus 330 EC (pendimethalin) 1.5 l ha–1 + Basagran

high nitrogen and enhances crop growth and yield, sili- 480 (bentazone) 1.5 l ha–1, 21.05.2014. No pest or dis-

con fertilizers based on silicate minerals, ashes and slags ease control chemicals were used.

have come into vogue (OLLE, 2014).

The disease ascochyta blight (Ascochyta spp.) was

Some results treating pea plants with silicon are avail- present at a low level. Disease damage was assessed at

able also from previous research. For example silicon plant development stage 224–240 (decimal code for the

treated pea plants showed reduced damage due to infec- growth stages for pea by UPOV – International Union for

tion of Pisum sativum seedlings by blight disease (Mycos- the Protection of New Varieties of Plants). In late growth

phaerella pinoides). Silicon treatment promotes forma- phases attack by pea weevils was also seen (Sitona spp.).

tion of nodules (for N fixation) in the roots of legumes Weather conditions are sown in Fig. 1. Seeds emerged

(BENT, 2014).

slowly due to the cold spring, which was 3–4 0C colder

The application of stabilized silicic acid is called the than normal at the end of June. Summer was close to the

‘silicic acid agro technology’ (SAAT). This technology local average with a mean temperature around 180C in

was developed by Dr. Henk-Maarten Laane (BENT, 2014). July. Precipitation was more than usual, although quite

SAAT claims to be effective on almost every crop with dry in July, but despite this plants grew well.

increases of root system, longer stem/tillers, leaf area The samples for chemical analyses were taken from

and chlorophyll content and nutrient uptake resulting in already dried peas in the autumn of 2014. The contents

15–50% more yield and higher quality (BENT, 2014). of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magne-

SAAT also decreases biotic and abiotic stresses. Due to a sium were determined. Nitrogen content was determined

(much) lower infection rate, pesticide use can be reduced according to the Copper Catalyst Kjeldahl Method

by (at least) 50%. The product is safe (for the plant, the (984.13). Phosporus determination was carried through

soil, the farmer and the consumer) and ecologically in Kjeldahl Digest by Fiastar 5000 (AN 5242; Stannous

friendly.

Chloride method, ISO/FDIS 15681). Potassium determi-

The purpose of this investigation was to look at the nation was by the Flame Photometric Method (956.01).

influence of silicic acid on the chemical content of field Calcium determination was by the o-Cresolphthalein

peas of variety Mehis.

Complexone method (ISO 3696, in Kjeldahl Digest by

Fiastar 5000). Magnesium determination was by Fiastar

5000 (ASTN90/92; Titan Yellow method). Analyses of

Materials and Methods

variance were carried out on the data obtained using the

program Excel.

The experiment was carried out at the Estonian Crop

Research Institute in 2014, in an experimental field geo-

graphically located at N 58°769' E 26°400'.

Results

The field pea variety Mehis was used. Seeds were sown

on 28 April 2014 and plants were harvested on 6 August Treatment with silicic acid partially improved the quality

2014. Plot size was 10 m². A completely randomized of field peas, variety Mehis, in terms of nutrient concen-

Journal für Kulturpflanzen 68. 2016

Temperature, °C Rainfall, mm

Originalarbeit

MARGIT OLLE, EWALD SCHNUG, The influence of foliar applied silicic acid on …

Meteo data of 2014 vegetation season

35

100

30

90

80

25

70

20

60

50

15

40

10

30

20

5

10

0

0

123123123123123123123

April

May

June

July

August September October

Rainfall, mm

Max temperature, °C

Average temperature, °C

Fig. 1. Weather conditions during the field pea vegetation period in 2014 according to Jõgeva Meteorological Station.

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tration. The content of phosphorus in field pea dry matter was significantly higher (5.4%) in the silicic acid treatment than in the control treatment (Tab. 1). The content of potassium in field pea dry matter was significantly higher (5.7%) in the silicic acid treatment than in the control treatment (Tab. 1). However, the content of nitrogen, calcium and magnesium in the field pea dry matter did not differ significantly between treatments (Tab. 1).
Discussion
Treatment with silicon has been reported to increase nutrient uptake generally (BENT, 2014). However, in the present investigation Phosphorus and Potassium contents were increased by treating pea plants with silicic acid solution compared to the untreated control. At the same time Phosphorus is needed especially for good root growth (DURNER, 2013). Potassium is very important in stomatal function and water relations of plants (DURNER, 2013). The contents of Nitrogen, Calcium and Magnesium in field pea dry matter were not significantly

increased by Si treatment in our experiment. This was probably due to unfavourable growing conditions in spring. It is very important that plants establish well in their initial growth phases in order to get normal growth thereafter. Pea seed germination in spring 2014 was slow (18 days), resulting in poorly developed small plants for silicic acid treatment. Later plant quality can also be negatively influenced by poor early development. It is very important to point out that the weather conditions were bad before the silicic acid treatment.
Silicon additions to potted alfalfa plants have increased shoot Phosphorus content (LIU and GUO, 2011) and increased Calcium and Potassium contents in wheat (MALI and AERY, 2008). Similarly BENT (2014) reported that silicon increased the content of minerals in plants. These results are contrary to our results, but this may be due to our weather conditions. A higher Ca content is beneficial, suppressing insect and disease attack and increasing transportability and storage quality (OLLE, 2013). A higher Mg content reduces the incidence of insect pests and diseases (CAKMAK, 2013).
Conclusions

Tab. 1. The contents (%) of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium in dried peas treated with foliar applied silicic acid

Treatment

Nutrient Silicic acid

Control

p

Silicic acid partially improved the quality of field peas of variety Mehis: the content of Phosphorus and Potassium in field pea dry matter was higher in the silicic acid treatment than in the control treatment. The content of Nitrogen, Calcium and Magnesium in field pea dry matter did not differ significantly between treatments.

N% P% K% Ca% Mg%

4.16 0.624 0.944 0.156 0.132

4.07 0.590 0.891 0.156 0.133

0.592 < 0.001
0.025 0.869 0.882

Acknowledgements
This investigation was part of the project EUROLEGUME. It received funding from the EU 7th FP for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration under grant agreement no. 613781.

Journal für Kulturpflanzen 68. 2016

Originalarbeit

MARGIT OLLE, EWALD SCHNUG, The influence of foliar applied silicic acid on …

References
BENT, E., 2014: Silicons Solutions. Helping plants to help themselves. Sestante Edizioni, Bergamo, 183 p.
CAKMAK, I., 2013: Magnesium in crop production, food quality and human health. Plant Soil 368, 1-4.
DURNER, E.F., 2013: Principles of Horticultural Physiology. Tarxien, Malta, Gutenberg Press Ltd., 405 p.
HECKMAN, J., 2013: Silicon: A Beneficial Substance. Better crops 97 (4), 14-16.
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Journal für Kulturpflanzen 68. 2016
PlantsSiliconSilicic AcidCalciumFoliar