PHYSICAL THERAPIST CLINICAL EDUCATION GLOSSARY This glossary

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PHYSICAL THERAPIST CLINICAL EDUCATION GLOSSARY This glossary

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PHYSICAL THERAPIST CLINICAL EDUCATION GLOSSARY

This glossary of terms was developed after a review of the physical therapy literature, extensive discussion and debate by the ACAPT Common Terminology Panel, and engagement of key stakeholders within the physical therapy clinical education community.

The Glossary is divided into major categories and, as applicable, definitions are referenced.

CLINICAL EDUCATION INFRASTRUCTURE

Clinical education

A formal supervised experiential learning, focused on development and application of patient/client-centered skills and professional behaviors. It is designed so that students gain substantial, relevant clinical experience and skills, engage in contemporary practice, and demonstrate competence before beginning independent practice.1-3

Clinical education agreement

A formal and legally binding agreement that is negotiated between academic institutions and clinical education sites or individual providers of clinical education that specifies each party's roles, responsibilities, and liabilities relating to student clinical education.4

Clinical education curriculum

The portion of a physical therapy education program that includes all part-time and full-time clinical education experiences as well as the supportive preparatory and administrative components.4

Clinical education experience

Experiences that allow students to apply and attain professional knowledge, skills, and behaviors within a variety of environments. Experiences include those of short and long duration (e.g., part-time, fulltime), provide a variety of learning opportunities, and include physical therapy services for patients/clients across the lifespan and practice settings. While the emphasis is on the development of patient/client physical therapy skills, experiences may also include inter-professional experiences and non-patient/client service delivery such as research, teaching, supervision, and administration. Clinical education experiences are a part of the professional curriculum and include formal student assessment.5-8

Collaborative clinical education model

A clinical education experience in which two (or more) physical therapist students are assigned to one (or more) preceptor/clinical instructor(s).
©American Council of Academic Physical Therapy

The students work cooperatively under the preceptor/clinical instructor(s). Examples include 2:1, 2:2, 3:1, etc. student to preceptor/clinical instructor ratio. Students may be from the same or different programs and may be at the same or different levels of training.9-11

Didactic curriculum

The component of the physical therapist professional education program that is comprised of the content, instruction, learning experiences, and assessment directed by the academic faculty.3,12,13

Fellowship

A postprofessional planned learning experience in a focused advanced area of practice. Similar to the medical model, a fellowship is a structured educational experience (both didactic and clinical) for physical therapists which combines opportunities for ongoing mentoring with a theoretical basis for advanced practice and scientific inquiry in a defined area of subspecialization beyond that of a defined specialty area of practice. A fellowship candidate has either completed a residency program in a related specialty area or is a board-certified specialist in the related area of specialty. Fellowship training is not appropriate for new physical therapy graduates.14 (http://www.abptrfe.org/uploadedFiles/ABPTRFEorg/For_Programs/Appl y/ABPTRFE_CredentialingHandbook.pdf ) [Note: This definition will be updated to remain consistent with future revisions to the ABPTRFE Accreditation Handbook.]

Full-time clinical education experience

A clinical education experience in which a student is engaged for a minimum of 35 hours per week. Full-time clinical education experiences designated to achieve the minimum number of weeks set forth by CAPTE are directed by a physical therapist clinical instructor.5,7 An integrated clinical education experience may be a full-time clinical education experience.

First full-time clinical education experience

The first clinical education experience designated to achieve the minimum number of weeks set forth by CAPTE in which a student engages for a minimum of 35 hours per week.

Intermediate fulltime clinical education experience

A clinical education experience designated to achieve the minimum number of weeks set forth by CAPTE in which a student engages for a minimum of 35 hours per week and returns to the academic program for further completion of the didactic curriculum.

Terminal fulltime clinical education experience

A single, or set of, full-time clinical education experience(s) designated to achieve the minimum number of weeks set forth by CAPTE that occurs after the student has completed the didactic curriculum of a physical therapist professional education program. Students may return to the academic program for didactic instruction that does not require additional clinical education experiences. The expected outcome of the final, or last terminal experience is entry-level performance.7
©American Council of Academic Physical Therapy

Integrated clinical education
International clinical education experiences Internship Learning experience
Part-time clinical education experience

Integrated clinical education is a curriculum design model whereby clinical education experiences are purposively organized within a curriculum. In physical therapist education, these experiences are obtained through the exploration of authentic physical therapist roles, responsibilities and values that occur prior to the terminal full time clinical education experiences.
Integrated experiences are coordinated by the academic program and are driven by learning objectives that are aligned with didactic content delivery across the curricular continuum. These experiences allow students to attain professional behaviors, knowledge and/or skills within a variety of environments. The supervised experiences also allow for exposure and acquisition across all domains of learning and include student performance assessment.
For integrated clinical education experiences to qualify towards the minimum number of full-time clinical education weeks required by accreditation (CAPTE) standards, it must be full time and supervised by a physical therapist within a physical therapy workplace environment or practice setting.
ICE=Integrated Clinical Education
A student educational opportunity outside of the country in which the physical therapist education program is situated, for which the student obtains clinical education credit.7,15 [Note: The abbreviation ICE should not be used to describe an international clinical education experience.]
A terminal full-time clinical education experience that provides recompense to participants in accordance with federal labor laws under the Fair Labor Standards Act.16
Any experience which allows or facilitates a change in attitude or behavior. A planned learning experience includes a learner, an objective for the learner, a situation devised to produce a response that contributes to the objective, a response by the student, and reinforcement to encourage the desired response.3
A clinical education experience in which a student engages in clinical education for less than 35 hours per week. Part-time experiences vary in length. A part-time clinical education experience may be considered an integrated clinical education experience depending on the design of the experience and the learning objectives.7,17

©American Council of Academic Physical Therapy

Physical therapist professional education program
Physical therapist post-professional education program
Residency

Education comprised of didactic and clinical education designed to assure that students acquire the professional knowledge, skills, and behaviors required for entry-level physical therapist practice.3,18,19
Degree and non-degree based professional development for the physical therapist to enhance professional knowledge, skills, and abilities beyond entry level. Examples include, but are not limited to, continuing education courses, post-professional doctoral education programs, certificate programs, residencies, and fellowships.19
A postprofessional planned learning experience in a focused area of practice. Similar to the medical model, a residency program is a structured educational experience (both didactic and clinical) for physical therapists following entry-level education and licensure that is designed to significantly advance the physical therapist’s knowledge, skills, and attributes in a specific area of practice (i.e. Cardiovascular/Pulmonary, Faculty, Orthopedics, Sports, Pediatrics, etc). It combines opportunities for ongoing mentoring, with a theoretical basis for advanced practice and scientific inquiry based on a Description of Specialty Practice (see definition), Description of Residency Practice (see definition), or valid analysis of practice/comprehensive needs assessment for that specific area of practice. When board certification exists through ABPTS for that specialty, the residency training prepares the physical therapist to pass the certification examination following graduation. A residency candidate must be licensed as a physical therapist in the State where the program is located/clinical training will occur prior to entry into the program. Neither “residency” nor “fellowship” is synonymous with the terms “internship.”14 (http://www.abptrfe.org/uploadedFiles/ABPTRFEorg/For_Programs/Appl y/ABPTRFE_CredentialingHandbook.pdf ) [Note: This definition will be updated to remain consistent with future revisions to the ABPTRFE Accreditation Handbook.]

CLINICAL EDUCATION SITES

Clinical education site

A health service delivery agency or other setting in which clinical education experiences are provided for physical therapist students. The clinical education site may be, but is not limited to, a hospital, agency, clinic, office, school, or home and is affiliated with the educational program(s) through a contractual agreement.3,4

Clinical education environment

The physical space(s), and/or the structures, policies, procedures, and culture, within the clinical education site.

CLINICAL EDUCATION STAKEHOLDERS

©American Council of Academic Physical Therapy

Academic faculty

Educators and scholars within the academic institution dedicated to preparing students with the skills and aptitudes needed to practice physical therapy.20

Academic institution

University or college through which an academic degree is granted.4

Clinical education consortia

National and regional groups that include academic and clinical education faculty for the purpose of sharing resources, ideas, and efforts.4

Clinical education faculty

The individuals engaged in providing the clinical education components of the curriculum, generally referred to as either Site Coordinators of Clinical Education (SCCEs), preceptors, or clinical Instructors. While the academic institution does not usually employ these individuals, they do agree to certain standards of behavior through contractual arrangements for their services.7

Clinical instructor (CI)

The physical therapist responsible for the physical therapist student and for directly instrucing, guiding, supervising, and formally assessing the student during the clinical education experience. When engaged in fulltime clinical education designated to meet the minimum number of weeks required by CAPTE, the clinical instructor must be a licensed physical therapist with a minimum of one year of full time (or equivalent) post-licensure clinical experience.4,21,22

Director of Clinical Education (DCE)

Academic faculty member who is responsible for planning, directing and evaluating the clinical education program for the academic institution, including facilitating clinical site and clinical faculty development.21,23,24

Physical therapist student

Student enrolled in a CAPTE-accredited or approved developing physical therapist professional education program. Students should not be referred to as a physical therapy student.

Preceptor

An individual who provides short-term specialized instruction, guidance, and supervision for the physical therapist student during a clinical education experience. This individual may or may not be a physical therapist as permitted by law.

Site Coordinator of

A professional who administers, manages, and coordinates clinical

Clinical Education

assignments and learning activities for students during their clinical

(SCCE)

education experience. In addition, this person determines the readiness

of persons to serve as preceptors and clinical instructors for students,

supervises preceptors and clinical instructors in the delivery of clinical

education experiences, communicates with the academic program

regarding student performance, and provides essential information to

academic programs.4,21,25

CLINICAL EDUCATION ASSESSMENT

©American Council of Academic Physical Therapy

Clinical performance assessment
Clinical performance evaluation tool
Entry-level physical therapist clinical performance Supervision

Formal and informal processes designed to appraise physical therapist student performance during clinical education experiences. Assessment may be formative or summative in nature and performed for the purposes of providing feedback, improving learning, revising learning experiences, and determining successful attainment of student performance expectations during clinical education experiences.3,21,26,27
A valid, reliable, and multidimensional clinical performance assessment tool utilized to determine if, and how well, a student meets established objectives during clinical education experiences.4,28,29,30
Performance that demonstrates knowledge, skills, and behaviors consistent with effective, efficient, and safe patient/client management to achieve optimal outcomes.21,28
Guidance and direction provided to a physical therapist student by the preceptor or clinical instructor. This varies based on the complexity of the patient/client or environment; jurisdiction and payer rules and regulations; and abilities of the physical therapist student.4,21,28

References
1. Delany C, Bragge P. A study of physiotherapy students’ and clinical educators’ perceptions of learning and teaching. Medical Teacher. 2009;31(9):402-411.
2. OʼBrien B, Teherani A. Using Workplace Learning to Improve Patient Care. Acad Med. 2011;86(11):e12.
3. Moore ML, Perry JF. Clinical Education in Physical Therapy: Present Status/Future Needs. Final Report of the Project on Clinical Education in Physical Therapy. Washington, DC: Section for Education American Physical Therapy Association; June 1976;NO1-AH.
4. American Physical Therapy Association. The Physical Therapy Clinical Instructor Education and Credentialing Program Manual. Alexandria, VA: American Physical Therapy Association; 2009.
5. Terminology for Clinical Education Experiences Proposed by Academic Council Board of Directors [ACAPT motion AC-2-13]. http://acapt.myriadmedia.com/docs/default-source/motions/2013-motions/ac-213_terminology_for_clincal_education_passed.pdf?sfvrsn=2. Accessed May 16, 2017.
6. Pivko SE, Abbruzzese LD, Duttarov P, Hansen RL, Ryans K. Effect of physical therapy students' clinical experiences on clinician productivity. J Allied Health. 2016;45(1):33-40.
7. Commission on Accreditation in Physical Therapy Education. Standards and Required Elements for Accreditation of Physical Therapist Education Programs, 2016. ©American Council of Academic Physical Therapy

http://www.capteonline.org/AccreditationHandbook/. Published November 11, 2015, Updated March 4, 2016. Accessed April 10, 2017.
8. Giberson TR, Black B, Pinkerton E. The impact of student-clinical instructor fit and studentorganization fit on physical therapist clinical education experience outcomes. J Phys Ther Educ. 2008;22(1):59-64.
9. Rindflesch AB, Dunfee HJ, Cieslak KR, et al. Collaborative model of clinical education in physical and occupational therapy at the Mayo Clinic. J Allied Health. 2009;38(3):132-142.
10. Declute J, Ladyshewsky R. Enhancing clinical competence using a collaborative clinical education model. Phys Ther. 1993;73(10):683-689.
11. Ladyshewsky RK. Peer assisted learning in clinical education: a review of terms and learning principles. J Phys Ther Educ. 2000;14(2):15-22.
12. Commission on Accreditation in Physical Therapy Education. Evaluative Criteria for Accreditation of Education Programs for the Preparation of Physical Therapists. Commission on Accreditation in Physical Therapy Education Web site. http://www.capteonline.org/uploadedFiles/CAPTEorg/About_CAPTE/Resources/Accreditation_ Handbook/EvaluativeCriteria_PT.pdf. Updated August 2014. Accessed April 10, 2017.
13. Kenyon LK, Dole RL, Kelly SP. Perspectives of academic faculty and clinical instructors on entrylevel dpt preparation for pediatric physical therapist practice. Phys Ther. 2013;93(12):16611672.
14. American Board of Physical Therapy Residency and Fellowship Education (ABPTRFE).Accreditation Handbook 2016 Edition. ABPTRFE Web site.http://www.abptrfe.org/uploadedFiles/ABPTRFEorg/For_Programs/Apply/ABPTRFE_Crede ntialingHandbook.pdf Updated August 9, 2017. Accessed October 12, 2017.
15. Pechak CM. Survey of international clinical education in physical therapist education. J Phys Ther Educ. 2012;26(1):69-77.
16. U.S. Department of Labor Wage and Hour Division. Fact Sheet #71: Internship programs under the Fair Labor Standards Act. https://www.dol.gov/whd/regs/compliance/whdfs71.pdf. Updated April 2010. Accessed May 16, 2017.
17. American Physical Therapy Association. 2007-2008 Fact sheet: physical therapist education programs. American Physical Therapy Association Web site. http://www.apta.org/AM/Template.cfm?Section=Home&TEMPLATE=/CM/. Accessed April 10, 2017.
18. Barr JS, Gwyer J, Talmor Z. Evaluation of clinical education centers in physical therapy. Phys Ther. 1982;62(6):850-861.
©American Council of Academic Physical Therapy

19. American Physical Therapy Association. Education For Physical Therapists: Terminology Used To Describe [HOD P05-07-11-04]. https://www.apta.org/uploadedFiles/APTAorg/About_Us/Policies/HOD/Terminology/Education .pdf. Updated December 14, 2009. Accessed April 10, 2017.
20. Kondela-Cebulski PM. Counseling function of academic coordinators of clinical education from select entry-level physical therapy educational programs. Phys Ther. 1982;62(4):470-476.
21. American Physical Therapy Association. Physical Therapist Clinical Performance Instruments: Version 2006. Alexandria, VA: American Physical Therapy Association; 2006.
22. Halcarz PA, Marzouk DK, Avila E, Bowser MS, Hurm, L. Preparation of entry level students for future roles as clinical instructors. J Phys Ther Educ. 1991;5(2):78-80.
23. Buccierei KM, Brown R, Malta S. Evaluating the performance of the academic coordinator/director of clinical education: tools to solicit input from program directors, academic faculty, and students. J Phys Ther Educ. 2011;25(2):26-35.
24. Perry JF. A model for designing clinical education. Phys Ther. 1981;61(10):1427-1432.
25. Philips BU, Mcphail S, Roemer S. Role and functions of the academic coordinator of clinical education in physical therapy education: a survey. Phys Ther. 1986;66(6):981-985.
26. Kern BP, Mickelson JM. The development and use of an evaluation instrument for clinical education. Phys Ther. 1971;51(5):540-546.
27. Texas Consortium for Physical Therapy Education and Research Foundation. Physical Therapist Manual for the Assessment of Clinical Skills. Austin, TX: 2004.
28. Beckel C, Austin T, Kettenbach G, Sargeant D. Computer and internet access for physical therapist clinical education. J Phys Ther Educ. 2008;22(3):19-23.
29. Fitzgerald LM, Delitto A, Irrgang JJ. Validation of the clinical internship evaluation tool. Phys Ther. 2007;87(7):844-860.
30. Housel N, Gandy J. Clinical instructor credentialing and its effect on student clinical performance outcomes. J Phys Ther Educ. 2008;22(3):43-51.
©American Council of Academic Physical Therapy
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