Sample APA-7 paper for Graduate & Doctoral Students

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Sample APA-7 paper for Graduate & Doctoral Students

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SAMPLE APA-7 PAPER FOR GRADUATE/DOCTORAL STUDENTS

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Sample APA Paper: Professional Format for Graduate/Doctoral Students
Claudia S. Sample School of Behavioral Sciences, Liberty University

Author Note Claudia S. Sample (usually only included if author has an ORCID number) I have no known conflict of interest to disclose. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Claudia S. Sample. Email: [email protected]
Created by Christy Owen of Liberty University’s Online Writing Center [email protected]; last date modified: April 13, 2022

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Table of Contents (Only Included for Easy Navigation; Hyperlinked for Quick Access) Sample APA Paper: Professional Format for Graduate/Doctoral Students.................................... 6 Basic Rules of Scholarly Writing ................................................................................................... 7 Brief Summary of Changes in APA-7 ............................................................................................. 8 Running Head, Author Note, and Abstract ..................................................................................... 9 Basic Formatting Elements ........................................................................................................... 10 Font ................................................................................................................................... 10 Line Spacing ..................................................................................................................... 10 Spaces After Punctuation .................................................................................................. 11 Footnotes........................................................................................................................... 11 Heading Levels—Level 1 ............................................................................................................. 11 Level 2 Heading ................................................................................................................ 12 Level 3 Heading .................................................................................................... 13
Level 4 Heading. Must be bolded and indented ½”. Add a period, one space, and begin your content on the same line as shown here. ....................................... 13
Level 5 Heading ............................................................................ 13 Specific Elements of Academic Papers ........................................................................................ 13
Tables of Contents and Outlines ....................................................................................... 13 Annotated Bibliographies ................................................................................................. 14 Appendices........................................................................................................................ 14

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Crediting Your Sources................................................................................................................. 15 Paraphrasing and Direct Quotes........................................................................................ 15 Paraphrasing.......................................................................................................... 16 Block Quotes......................................................................................................... 16 How Often to Cite Your Source in Each Paragraph ......................................................... 17 Rule for Omitting the Year of Publication........................................................................ 17 Arranging the Order of Resources in Your Citations ....................................................... 17 Two Works by the Same Author in the Same Year .......................................................... 18 Two Works by Two Different Authors with the Same Last Name .................................. 18 Three or More Authors Cited In-Text............................................................................... 18 Number of Authors in the Reference List......................................................................... 19
Numbers ........................................................................................................................................ 19 Displaying Titles of Works in-Text .............................................................................................. 19 Primary Sources versus Secondary Sources ................................................................................. 20 Personal Communications ............................................................................................................ 20 Resources Canonically Numbered Sections (i.e., the Bible and Plays)........................................ 21
Bible and other Classical Works....................................................................................... 21 Plays .................................................................................................................................. 22 Lectures and PowerPoints............................................................................................................. 22 Dictionary Entries ......................................................................................................................... 23 Changes in Reference Entries ....................................................................................................... 23

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Electronic Sources ........................................................................................................................ 24 Adding Color ................................................................................................................................ 24 Self-Plagiarism.............................................................................................................................. 25 Final Formatting Tweaks .............................................................................................................. 26 Exhaustive Reference List Examples & Additional Helpful Resources....................................... 26 Conclusion .................................................................................................................................... 29 References..................................................................................................................................... 30 Appendix....................................................................................................................................... 40

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Abstract Begin your abstract at the left margin. This is the only paragraph that should not be indented. Unless otherwise instructed, APA recommends an abstract be no more than 250 words. It should generally not contain any citations or direct quotes. This should be a tight, concise summary of the main points in your paper, not a step-by-step of what you plan to accomplish in your paper. Avoid phrases such as “this paper will,” and just structure your sentences to say what you want to say. The following three sentences exemplify a good abstract style: There are many similarities and differences between the codes of ethics for the ACA and the AACC. Both include similar mandates in the areas of ----, ---, and ---. However, each differs significantly in the areas of ---, ---, and ---. For more detailed information, see “Writing an Abstract” at https://www.liberty.edu/casas/academic-success-center/wp-content/uploads/sites/28/2019/04/ Writing_an_Abstract_Revised_2012.pdf (note that you would not include any links in your abstract). This is just now at 168 words, so eyeball how brief your abstract must be. Think of your paper as a movie you want to sound enticing, and the abstract as the summary of the plot you would share to draw people’s interest into wanting to come and see your movie. You want to really hook and intrigue them. What you have to say is important! Remember to stay under 250, words. Keywords highlight the search terms someone would use to find your paper in a database.
Keywords: main words, primary, necessary, search terms

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Sample APA Paper: Professional Format for Graduate/Doctoral Students The title of your paper goes on the top line of the first page of the body (American Psychological Association [APA], 2020, section 2.11). It should be centered, bolded, and in title case (all major words—usually those with four+ letters—should begin with a capital letter)—see p. 51 of your Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association: Seventh Edition (APA, 2020; hereinafter APA-7). It must match the title that is on your title page (see last line on p. 32). As shown in the previous sentence, use brackets to denote an abbreviation within parentheses (bottom of p. 159). Write out the full name of an entity or term the first time mentioned before using its acronym (see citation in first sentence in this paragraph), and then use the acronym throughout the body of the paper (section 6.25). There are many changes in APA-7. One to mention here is that APA-7 allows writers to include subheadings within the introductory section (APA, 2020, p. 47). Since APA-7 now regards the title, abstract, and term “References” to all be Level-1 headings, a writer who opts to include headings in his or her introduction must begin with Level-2 headings as shown above (see section 2.27) for any divisions within the introductory section. If you do choose to include headings in your introduction section (which is optional), be sure to include two or more subheadings, since APA (2020) forbids stand-alone heading levels. A second notable change in APA-7 is that writers are no longer required to cite their source every single sentence that content from it is mentioned (section 8.1). As demonstrated in this paper, since all of the content (other than the examples included for illustration and reference-entry variation purposes) comes directly from the APA-7 itself, citations to the APA-7 are only included for the first instance in each paragraph. Section and/or page numbers are included parenthetically throughout for the sake of students who desire to know exactly where the stated

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rule appears in the APA-7 itself. In your academic papers, however, it is critical to include the required author(s) and year, as applicable, for all citations that are included; this may include more than one citation for each resource per paragraph, as required to avoid any confusion about the source of that content.
Basic Rules of Scholarly Writing Most beginning students have difficulty learning how to write papers and also format papers correctly using the seventh edition of the APA manual. However, the Liberty University Online Writing Center’s (OWC) mission includes helping students learn how to be autonomous, proficient writers. The OWC also provides students with templates to help them with basic formatting elements, but this sample paper is designed to help graduate and doctoral students learn to master APA rules and formatting on their own, which will prove helpful as they progress in their studies and work toward future publication in scholarly journals. For the purpose of instruction, this paper will use second person (you, your), but third person (this author) must be used in most student papers. First person (I, me, we, us, our) is not generally permitted in academic papers. Students should refrain from using first or second person in college courses (even though the APA manual encourages this in other writing venues) unless the assignment instructions clearly permit such (as in the case of personal reflection sections or life histories). If in doubt, students should clarify with their professors. APA-7 delineates separate rules and guidelines between “student” and “professional” writers (APA, 2020). Because a primary purpose of graduate and doctoral studies is to prepare those students to publish professionally, Liberty University has decided to have undergraduate students follow APA-7’s guidelines for “student papers,” and graduate/doctoral students follow APA-7’s guidelines for “professional papers.” Separate templates are available for each level.

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This sample paper illustrates and discusses the rules and formatting of professional papers, as required for all Liberty University graduate and doctoral courses using APA-7 style.
Brief Summary of Changes in APA-7 Most of these changes will be discussed in more detail below; this is just a very brief overview here. APA-7 reverts back to only one space after closing punctuation in the body of the paper (APA-6 required two spaces; APA, 2020, section 6.1). Student (undergraduate) papers no longer include a running head or abstract (sections 2.2 and 2.8); professional (graduate/doctoral) papers require an abstract but the running head is now the same on all pages (the added phrase “Running head:” from APA-6 has been eliminated; see section 2.8). Title pages are different for both student and professional formats. The title of a paper is no longer limited to 12 words (section 2.4). Citations of all resources with three or more authors now use the first author’s last name and the term et al. (APA, 2020, section 8.17). Reference entries must name up to the first 19 authors before adding an ampersand and ellipsis (up from APA-6’s six authors; section 9.8). APA-7 omits the phrase DOI and instead standardizes DOIs to be presented in hyperlink format (i.e., https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1524838017742386; section 9.35). Formatting guidelines for annotated bibliographies are included in APA-7 (section 9.51), as well as expanded and standardized reference entry examples. As discussed above, it is no longer necessary to cite a source every single time you refer to content gleaned from it as long as it is clear the content comes from that source (section 8.1); APA-7 also expanded the specific location noted in the citation to include page, paragraph, section (as used throughout this sample paper, to direct the student to the exact relevant content), chapter, timestamp, etc. (section 8.13). APA-7 allows for “self-plagiarism” (clarified and defined below). It also invites writers to

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highlight the most relevant work first, rather than just present all works in alphabetical order (APA, 2020, section 8.12).
Heading-level formatting has changed, and APA-7 provides more flexibility in font and line spacing (APA, 2020). The Bible must now be included in the reference list and its citations must include the editor’s details and year (section 8.28); there are also new rules for dictionary entries. Publisher city and state details are omitted from all reference entries except those involving presentations or conferences, as is the phrase “retrieved from.” Hyperlinks should be live, but they may be either presented as blue underlining or plain black text.
Running Head, Author Note, and Abstract APA (2020) delineates separate formatting requirements for what it terms “student” and “professional” papers. Its descriptions for those labels, however, suggests that it regards undergraduate-level writing to fall within the student purview, and graduate/doctoral-level writing (including dissertations and theses) to fall within the professional purview. Since a significant goal in graduate and post-graduate studies is preparing those students to publish in scholarly journals at and beyond graduation, it makes sense to train those students in the formatting that is required for professionals. As such, Liberty University has opted to require the APA-7’s “student” version format for all undergraduate assignments using APA, and its “professional” version for all graduate and doctoral assignments. To that end, this being the sample paper for professional formatting, it includes the additional elements required for such: a running head (same on all pages), an author’s note, and an abstract. Graduate and doctoral students will use this format. Note that the first “paragraph” under the author’s note is generally only included if the author has an ORCID number, which most students will not have. However, it is included in this sample paper and the corresponding template because the purpose of these

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resources is to prepare students to publish manuscripts post-graduation. The student’s full address, however, is intentionally omitted from the Liberty University template and this sample paper for privacy and safety reasons, since student papers are often unfortunately published online and disclosing their home addresses could pose safety risks.
Basic Formatting Elements Font
APA-7 does not prescribe a specific font or size (APA, 2020, section 2.19) but rather allows for some choice (e.g., 12-point Times New Romans, 11-point Calibri, 11-point Arial, 11point Georgia, or 10-point Lucinda Sans Unicode). Most journals and academic institutions will have a preference, however, as even APA-7 acknowledges on p. 44. For this reason—and because font size can easily be changed if an editor interested in publishing a student’s work prefers a different font—Liberty University recommends that students use 12-point Times New Romans or 11-point Calibri font for the body text in all academic papers. Data in charts, figures, and tables should be presented in 8- to 14-point size in either Calibri, Arial, or Lucinda Sans Unicode font. Students are not permitted to use any fonts such as script, calligraphy, poster, decorative, or others not found in published scholarly journals. Since APA-7 itself authorizes a variety of fonts and sizes, assignments will be gauged by word count rather than page count. Word count constitutes the number of words within the body of the paper, and excludes the title page, abstract, reference list, appendices, and other supplemental resources. Line Spacing
APA-7 adds extra/blank lines on the title page (APA, 2020, sections 2.5, 2.7, 2.21). It also specifies that spacing in tables and figures may be single-, 1-1/2-, or double-spaced; equations can be triple- or quadruple-spaced. Footnotes, when used at the bottom of a page, should be
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