The Difference Between Disability and Impairment

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The Difference Between Disability and Impairment

Transcript Of The Difference Between Disability and Impairment

The Difference Between Disability and Impairment
A Distinction Worth Making

Luvuyo Dzingwa -

MMPA Academic Symposium 4th May 2019


Impairment & Disability: Concepts & Definitions Social Security Protection Compensation Legislation Permanent Impairment Rating Conclusion: Q & A

Consequences of Workplace Injuries and Disease

Injury, Diseases or disorder

• Alteration of one’s health status
• Any anatomic loss or functional abnormality persisting after MMI has been achieved
• At the organ level

• Assessed by non medical means
• Alteration of individuals’ capacity to meet personal , social , occupational , statutory or regulatory requirements.
• Either a functional limitation or
• An activity restriction of the person caused by an impairment
• At the person level

People with physical disabilities (PWD)
Limitations of socioeconomic roles, i.e. physical independence, mobility, social integration, economic self-sufficiency
• The disadvantage experienced by a person as a result of impairments
• Disadvantages that limit fulfillment of the an individual’s usual role.
• At the societal level

Adapted from Sequence of Concept (WHO, 1980)

Interaction of Concepts
Injury, Disease or Disorder

Body Functions/Structures


(Restriction )

Environmental Factors

Personal Factors

Source: WHO-ICF, Geneva: WHO:2001; Gray et al, (2000). Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 81:S10-S14

Impact of Impairment
Age Skills Education Occupation Language Skill Return Impact Functional Capacity Geographical opportunities Employer’s flexibility to modify job duties
Source: Adapted from College et al Korean Med Sci 2009; 24 (Suppl 2): S232-41.

Role of Social Security Protection
Above normal average

Level of protection Level of functionality


Social Security Net

Low High

What is Social Security Protection ?





Collection of

Basic Premise

Programs/Public policies • Individuals and households are

responsible for their well being

• Address risk, vulnerability, • Most people rely on market

inequality and poverty through a


system of transfers (which may • informal—family and community

be cash or in kind).

based—support mechanisms.

• Assist individuals that face • But, markets imperfect and

economic and social difficulties

informal mechanisms may be

• Enable them to take greater

insufficient and/or inadequate.

advantage of economic • Essential to strengthen individuals’


and households’ capacity to deal

with difficulties.

Why Public Involvement in SSP?
• Market failure, • Negative externalities, • Asymmetric information • Some intervention – for
instance, some social services are “prescribed” (obligatory)

Higher welfare of the overall society

Fundamentals of Social Security Protection


Building resilience to shocks • protects against drops in well-being from income and expenditure shocks • enables consumption smoothing over life cycle .

Core Functions

Project EquityObjectives

Improving equity • by protecting individuals and families from destitution and catastrophic losses
of human capital.


Improving opportunities for labor market inclusion

South Africa’s Social Security System

Pillar 1 Social Assistance (Non-contributory poverty alleviation)
Old Age Disability Child Support Foster Care Care Dependency War Veterans
Social Relief of Distress

Pillar 2 Social Insurance
(Contributory Mandatory)
Unemployment Insurance Fund (UIF)
Compensation Funds
Road Accident Fund (RAF)
*National Health Insurance (NHI)
*National Social Security
Fund (NSSF)

Pillar 3 Voluntary (Supplementary) Arrangements
Pension and Provident Funds
Retirement Annuities
Group Life Schemes
Collective Investment Funds; Long-term savings and endowment funds and other discretionary savings
and insurance products

State of Social Security Protection
Security ProtectionImpairmentDisabilityDifferenceDifficulties