The Education Of Special Education Students

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The Education Of Special Education Students

Transcript Of The Education Of Special Education Students

THE EDUCATION
OF SPECIAL EDUCATION STUDENTS

Schools Legal Service Orange County Department of Education

January 2018

Copyright © 2018 by ORANGE COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
Printed in the United States of America

Inquiries regarding permission for use of material contained in this publication should be addressed to:

Ronald D. Wenkart General Counsel Orange County Dept. of Education 200 Kalmus Drive Costa Mesa, California 92628 (714) 966-4220

Schools Legal Service Staff Ronald D. Wenkart, General Counsel Claire Y. Morey, Counsel Lysa M. Saltzman, Counsel Ruth D. Brewda, Counsel Norma Garcia, Paralegal

Schools Legal Service Orange County Department of Education

Education of Special Education Students January 2018

THE EDUCATION OF SPECIAL EDUCATION STUDENTS
Table of Contents
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HISTORY OF THE INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES EDUCATION ACT.... 1 PURPOSE OF THE IDEA................................................................................................. 2 KEY TERMS UNDER THE IDEA.................................................................................. 3 STATE STATUTORY PROVISIONS............................................................................. 6 FEDERAL FUNDING OF SPECIAL EDUCATION..................................................... 9 PERMISSIVE USE OF IDEA FUNDS............................................................................. 11 DUTY TO SEARCH FOR AND IDENTIFY DISABLED STUDENTS....................... 12 CHARTER SCHOOLS...................................................................................................... 12 LOCAL EDUCATIONAL AGENCY RISK POOL........................................................ 13 ELIGIBILITY FOR SPECIAL EDUCATION............................................................... 14 A. Statutory Provisions............................................................................................... 14 B. Preschool Eligibility................................................................................................ 17 C. Alternative Process For Eligiblity......................................................................... 18 D. Denial of Eligibility................................................................................................. 18 E. Eligibility of Orthopedically Impaired Students for
Special Education Services……………………………………………………… 24
ELIGIBILITY OF STUDENTS WITH SPECIFIC LEARNING DISABILITIES..... 28 INITIAL EVALUATION.................................................................................................. 29 A. Evaluation Process................................................................................................. 29 B. Parental Consent.................................................................................................... 31 C. Assessment of Special Education Students in All Areas
of Suspected Disability………………………………………………………….. 33
REEVALUATION............................................................................................................. 34 ASSESSMENT OF EDUCATIONAL NEEDS............................................................... 35 A. Qualifications of Assessors.................................................................................... 35 B. Assessment Plan..................................................................................................... 35 C. Response to Intervention (RTI) ........................................................................... 36 D. Informed Consent.................................................................................................. 36 E. Triennial Review.................................................................................................... 37 F. Assessment Requirements..................................................................................... 37 G. Timelines For Assessment..................................................................................... 39 H. Written Report....................................................................................................... 40
DISCLOSURE OF ASSESSMENT INFORMATION................................................... 40

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Education of Special Education Students January 2018

THE EDUCATION OF SPECIAL EDUCATION STUDENTS

Table of Contents
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INDEPENDENT EDUCATIONAL EVALUATION..................................................... 41
OBSERVATION BY INDEPENDENT EVALUATOR................................................. 42
STATE PERFORMANCE GOALS AND INDICATORS............................................. 45
STANDARDIZED TESTING AND ACCOMMODATION OF SPECIAL EDUCATION STUDENTS............................................................................................... 46
PARTICIPATION OF SPECIAL EDUCATION STUDENTS IN STATEWIDE ASSESSMENTS................................................................................................................. 48
OVERIDENTIFICATION OF MINORITY STUDENTS IN SPECIAL EDUCATION..................................................................................................................... 49
PROHIBITION ON MANDATORY MEDICATION................................................... 49
IEP REQUIREMENTS..................................................................................................... 50
A. Annual Progress...................................................................................................... 50 B. Alternate Assessment.............................................................................................. 50 C. Transition Services.................................................................................................. 50 D. Additional Information........................................................................................... 51 E. Attendance at IEP Meetings................................................................................... 51 F. Preschool Children.................................................................................................. 51 G. Transfer of Students and Records......................................................................... 52 H. Changes to the IEP.................................................................................................. 53 I. Pilot Program – Multi-Year IEPs.......................................................................... 53 J. Video Conferences and Conference Calls............................................................. 55

DEVELOPMENT OF THE IEP....................................................................................... 55
A. Statutory Requirements......................................................................................... 55 B. Material Failure to Implement IEP....................................................................... 57 C. Parental Interference with Implementation of IEP............................................ 60

TRANSITION PLANS...................................................................................................... 63
REPORT CARDS, GRADES AND TRANSCRIPTS OF DISABLED STUDENTS.. 67
PROVIDING A FREE APPROPRIATE PUBLIC EDUCATION............................... 70
A. Statutory Definition............................................................................................... 70 B. The Rowley Decision.............................................................................................. 71 C. The Endrew F. Decision………………………………………………………… 72 D. Specialized Schools Versus Neighborhood School.............................................. 76 E. Extracurricular Activities..................................................................................... 76 F. District’s Offer of Program................................................................................... 77 G. Educational Benefit................................................................................................ 77

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Education of Special Education Students January 2018

THE EDUCATION OF SPECIAL EDUCATION STUDENTS
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H. Challenges to the Rowley Standard of Educational Benefit............................... 81 I. Frequent Issues Relating to FAPE........................................................................ 82 J. Procedural Errors and Denial of FAPE............................................................... 88 K. Eligibility for Special Education Services……………………………………… 98 L. Outdated IEP.......................................................................................................... 103
CHILDREN WITH AUTISM – PROVIDING A FREE APPROPRIATE PUBLIC EDUCATION..................................................................................................................... 107
A. Characteristics of Autism...................................................................................... 107 B. Early Identification of Autism.............................................................................. 108 C. Awareness of Autism............................................................................................. 108 D. District Development of Appropriate Programs................................................. 109 E. Early Intervention Programs................................................................................ 112 F. Least Restrictive Environment............................................................................. 113 G. Educational Benefit For Children with Autism.................................................. 114 H. Home Based Programs.......................................................................................... 116 I. Meaningful Progress for Children with Autism................................................. 116
EXHAUSTION OF ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES................................................. 119
REMEDIES EMPLOYED BY THE COURTS............................................................... 121
A. Reimbursement For Unilateral Placement........................................................... 121 B. Compensatory Education...................................................................................... 134 C. Injunctive Relief..................................................................................................... 135 D. Damages.................................................................................................................. 135
RELATED SERVICES..................................................................................................... 136
A. Judicial Definition of Related Services................................................................ 136 B. Psychiatric Hospitalization................................................................................... 137 C. Maintenance of Surgical Devices......................................................................... 139 D. Special Education Transportation....................................................................... 140 E. Physical and Occupational Therapy Services Provided by California
Children’s Services (CCS)……………………………………………………… 144
UNILATERAL PLACEMENT........................................................................................ 147
A. Statutory Provisions.............................................................................................. 147 B. The Stay-Put Rule and Unilateral Placement..................................................... 148 C. Unilateral Placement – Failure to Propose a School Placement …………….. 159 D. Home School Placement........................................................................................ 160

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RESIDENTIAL PLACEMENT....................................................................................... 162
A. Early Decisions – The Intertwining Standard.................................................... 162 B. Placement For Medical Reasons.......................................................................... 162 C. Intertwining of Medical and Educational Needs................................................ 163 D. Rejection of the Intertwining Standard.............................................................. 170 E. Placement in Locked Facilities.............................................................................. 176
JUVENILE COURT ORDERS........................................................................................ 178
LICENSED CHILDREN’S INSTITUTIONS AND NONPUBLIC SCHOOLS UNDER CALIFORNIA LAW.......................................................................................... 179
EXTENDED SCHOOL YEAR......................................................................................... 184
GRADUATION OF SPECIAL EDUCATION STUDENTS.......................................... 185
CHILDREN ENROLLED IN PRIVATE SCHOOLS BY THEIR PARENTS............ 186
PROCEDURAL SAFEGUARDS NOTICE REQUIREMENTS................................... 189
A. Procedural Safeguards........................................................................................... 189 B. Transmittal of Notice.............................................................................................. 190 C. Contents of Notice................................................................................................... 190 D. The 2006 Regulations............................................................................................. 191 E. Court Decisions....................................................................................................... 192
DUE PROCESS PROCEDURES...................................................................................... 195
A. Grounds for Filing Due Process Complaint......................................................... 195 B. Surrogate Parent..................................................................................................... 195 C. Two Year Statute of Limitations for Due Process Complaints........................... 196 D. Filing Due Process Complaints.............................................................................. 196 E. Initiation of Due Process Hearings……………………………………………… 197 F. Sufficiency of Due Process Complaint.................................................................. 200 G. General Hearing Requirements............................................................................. 201 H. Resolution Session/Resolution Meeting................................................................. 203 I. Disclosure of Evaluations....................................................................................... 204 J. Qualifications of Hearing Officers........................................................................ 204 K. Conduct of Hearing................................................................................................ 204 L. Decision of Hearing Officer................................................................................... 205 M. Appeal of Hearing Officer’s Decision................................................................... 205 N. Non-Attorneys Representing Parties in Due Process Hearings………………. 205
THE BURDEN OF PROOF IN IDEA DUE PROCESS HEARINGS.......................... 206
A. Burden of Proof – In General................................................................................ 206

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B. Burden of Proof Under the IDEA......................................................................... 207
REPRESENTATION OF STUDENT BY PARENTS.................................................... 208
ATTORNEYS’ FEES......................................................................................................... 209
A. Amendment of the IDEA....................................................................................... 209 B. Prevailing Party – Failure to Identify Special Education Student.................... 210 C. Determining Prevailing Party Status................................................................... 212 D. Parent/Attorneys.................................................................................................... 219 E. Degree of Success.................................................................................................... 219 F. Award of Attorneys’ Fees to School District........................................................ 222
EXPERT WITNESS FEES................................................................................................ 224
MAINSTREAMING........................................................................................................... 225
CURRENT EDUCATIONAL PLACEMENT – “STAY-PUT” RULE......................... 227
A. The Stay-Put Rule................................................................................................... 227 B. What Constitutes a Change in Placement............................................................. 228 C. Modifications to the Placement.............................................................................. 231 D. The Current Educational Placement During the Appeal Process...................... 232 E. Limitations on the Stay-Put Rule.......................................................................... 235 F. Furlough Days and Special Education.................................................................. 236 G. Issuance of a Preliminary Injunction.................................................................... 237
DISCIPLINE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION STUDENTS.............................................. 239
A. The Stay-Put Rule and Discipline.......................................................................... 239 B. Change of Placement.............................................................................................. 240 C. Manifestation Determination................................................................................. 240 D. Interim Alternative Educational Setting............................................................... 241 E. Child Not Yet Eligible for Special Education....................................................... 243 F. Referral to Law Enforcement Officials................................................................. 243
BEHAVIOR INTERVENTIONS FOR SPECIAL EDUCATION STUDENTS........... 244
A. Intent of the Legislature......................................................................................... 244 B. Emergency Interventions....................................................................................... 244 C. Prohibited Behavior Interventions....................................................................... 246 D. Repeal of Regulations............................................................................................. 247 E. Behavior Analyst Certification Board.................................................................. 247 F. Summary................................................................................................................. 247

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THE EDUCATION OF SPECIAL EDUCATION STUDENTS
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RESIDENCY OF SPECIAL EDUCATION/FOSTER YOUTH STUDENTS……… 248
A. In General………………………………………………………………………. 248 B. District of Residence……………………………………………………………. 248 C. Definition of Parent…………………………………………………………….. 249 D. Juvenile Court Schools…………………………………………………………. 251 E. Licensed Children’s Institutions/Licensed Foster Homes……………………. 252 F. Foster Children and School of Origin…………………………………………. 253 G. State Hospital…………………………………………………………………… 254 H. Students Incarcerated in County Jails………………………………………… 255 I. Summary of Pending Provisions………………………………………………. 255
HEALTH INSURANCE.................................................................................................... 256
MEDIATION...................................................................................................................... 257
STATE COMPLAINT PROCEDURES.......................................................................... 257
AGE OF MAJORITY........................................................................................................ 260
MISCELLANEOUS IDEA PROVISIONS...................................................................... 261
HIGHLY QUALIFIED SPECIAL EDUCATION TEACHERS................................... 261
LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR OTHER PROFESSIONALS........................... 266
SECTION 504 OF THE REHABILITATION ACT AND THE PROVISION OF A FREE APPROPRIATE PUBLIC EDUCATION.................................................. 267
A. U.S. Supreme Court Decisions............................................................................... 267 B. Appellate Court Decisions...................................................................................... 272 C. Accommodation of Deaf Parents........................................................................... 274 D. Outdoor Programs.................................................................................................. 275 E. Food Allergies.......................................................................................................... 276
DISABLED STUDENTS AND EXTRACURRICULAR ATHLETICS....................... 278
A. Issuance of OCR Guidance................................................................................... 278 B. Section 504 Requirements..................................................................................... 279 C. Equal Opportunity for Disabled Students........................................................... 280 D. Reasonable Accommodation of Disabled Students............................................. 281 E. Special Programs for Disabled Students.............................................................. 281
AMENDMENTS TO THE AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT AND SECTION 504 OF THE REHABILITATION ACT............................................. 282

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Education of Special Education Students January 2018

THE EDUCATION OF SPECIAL EDUCATION STUDENTS
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THE AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT AND A FREE APPROPRIATE PUBLIC EDUCATION........................................................................ 283
A. Factual Background – K.M................................................................................... 283 B. Factual Background – D.H.................................................................................... 285 C. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act................................................. 285 D. The Americans with Disabilities Act..................................................................... 286 E. The Court of Appeals’ Ruling............................................................................... 287 F. Summary................................................................................................................. 289 G. Damages Under the ADA and Section 504……………………………………… 289
SERVICE ANIMALS UNDER THE AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT.... 290
PROPOSITION 63 MENTAL HEALTH FUNDS.......................................................... 292
A. Purpose and Intent of the MHSA.......................................................................... 292 B. Definition of Seriously Emotionally Disturbed (SED) Children........................ 293 C. Services to SED and Severely Mentally Ill Children........................................... 294 D. Education and Training Programs....................................................................... 295 E. Oversight and Accountability................................................................................ 295 F. County Mental Health Plan................................................................................... 295 G. The Mental Health Services Fund......................................................................... 297 H. Legislative Analyst’s Office Analysis.................................................................... 298

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Education of Special Education Students January 2018

THE EDUCATION OF SPECIAL EDUCATION STUDENTS Table of Contents
Page APPENDICES:
APPENDIX I: KEY TIMELINES................................................................................ 299
APPENDIX II: CHARTS................................................................................................ 302
APPENDIX III: SUMMARY OF KEY PROVISIONS IN THE 2006 IDEA REGULATIONS................................................................................... 305
APPENDIX IV: WRITTEN NOTICE TO PARENT.................................................... 317
APPENDIX V: SPECIAL EDUCATION TIMELINES AND PROCEDURES…… 319

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Education of Special Education Students January 2018
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