The Valley Forge Report Volume Iii In The True Rustic Order

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The Valley Forge Report Volume Iii In The True Rustic Order

Transcript Of The Valley Forge Report Volume Iii In The True Rustic Order

t_VALLEY FORGE HISTORICAL RESEARCH REPORT
WAYNE K. BODLE and
JACQUELINE THIBAUT

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Jacqueline Thibaut Co-ordinating Research Historian Valley Forge Historical Research Project
United States Department of the Interior National Park Service
Valley Forge National Historical Park H. Gilbert Lusk, Superintendent Valley Forge, Pennsylvania May, 1980
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THE VALLEY FORGE REPORT VOLUME III
IN THE TRUE RUSTIC ORDER: Material Aspects of the Valley Forge Encampment, 1777-1778
Jacqueline Thibaut Research Historian Valley Forge National Historical Park
1979

CONTENTS

CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

i

INTRODUCTION

1

I MAPS

12

II THE TOOLS

20

III MILITARY STRUCTURES AND FEATURES

24

DWELLING HUTS

24

CAMP HOSPITALS

36

STORES AND MAGAZINES

40

PROVOST GUARD AND GUARD HOUSES

42

SUTLERS' BOOTHS

44

ARTIFICERS' HUTS

44

. FORTIFICATIONS

45

EXCAVATED FEATURES

60

SPECIAL USE AREAS

62

LOGISTICAL FEATURES

65

IV CIVILIAN STRUCTURES AND FEATURES

74

DWELLINGS AND AGRICULTURAL STRUCTURES

74

INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURES

92

APPENDICES

95

ABBREVIATIONS

103

NOTES

104

UIDEX

120

ADDENDUM: A "NEW'' MANUSCRIPT MAP OF VALLEY FORGE

132

AcknmV"ledgements
The Valley Forge Historical Research Project and Report is the product of many minds. It was conceived in 1976 by the late Charles Funnell, historian for the Mid-Atlantic Region of the National Park Service, together with John Bond, Regional Historian, and Dr. S. Sydney Bradford, Associate Director for Planning and Resource Preservation. The burden of sustaining the project through to completion during the ensuing three years was assumed with grace and forbearance by H. Gilbert Lusk, Superintendent of Valley Forge National Historical Park, and Vall~y Forge Chief of Interpretation W. Eugene Cox.
The project was launched in August of 1977, employing five research historians to gather photocopies of period documents from over two hundred archives in the United States, England, and France. The success of the project was in large part attributable to the thoroughness of their investigations. The three historians engaged in the project for this collection phase, and whose efforts were so essential to the project, were Michael Lawson, David Rich, and Harry Roach.
At a stage when the first draft of the report was nearing completion, in the summer of 1979, Dr. John Shy of the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor was engaged to review the manuscript and provide editorial comment and advice prior to the completion of the report. His extensive suggestions have as far as possible been incorponated in the report. The authors owe a professional
i

as well as personal debt of gratitude to Dr. Shy, one that extends
beyond their obvious admiration for his scholarship.
Dr. Michael Zuckerman of the University of Pennsylvania read and
offered a critique of Volume I of the work, and was unstinting of
his generous assistance.
During the course of the project, hundreds of personnel from
public and private archives and historical societies gave unstintingly
of their time and professional experti.se. The highest encomiums
were earned by the staff of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania
and the special courtesy extended by Dr. James Mooney, Director,
and Peter Parker, Director of Manuscripts, and his staff. The
many hours expended in the interest of the Valley Forge project by
Mr. Parker and his assistant are gratefully acknowledged.
To the directors and staffs of the following archives and
repositories the authors offer their profound thanks:
Allentown (PA) Public Library, American Antiquarian Society, American Museum of Jewish History, American Philosophical Society, Archives de l'Armee de la Terre (Paris), Berks County (PA) Historical Society, Bibliotheque Nationale (Paris), Bishop Mills (PA) Historical Institute, Boston Public Library, British Library, Brown University Libraries, Bucks County (PA) Historical Society, Claremont College (Honnold Library), William L. Clements Library of Americana, College of Physicians of Philadelphia, Connecticut Historical Society, Connecticut State Library, Delaware County (PA) Historical Society, Delaware Department of Vital Statistics, Delaware Hall of Archives and History, Detroit Public Library, Dickinson College (Spahr Library), Duke University Library, Duke University Medical Center Library, Franklin Institute, Free Library of Philadelphia, Friends Historical Society (Swarthmore College), Georgia Department ••of Archives and History, Georgia Historical Society, Greene County (PA) Historical Society, Harvard University Library, Historical Society of Delaware, Historical Society of Wisconsin, Hopewell Village National Historical Site, Huntington Library (San Marion, CA), Independence National Historical Park Library, Illinois Historical Survey, Jefferson Medical Library (Philadelphia), Kent County (England) Archives, Lafayette College Library, Lancaster County (PA) Historical Society
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Lehigh County (PA) Historical Society, Library Company of Philadelphia, Library of Congress of the United States, Library of South Caroliniana, Litchfield (CN) Historical Society, Long Island Historical Society, Maryland Historical Society, Massachusetts Historical Society, Massachusetts State Archives, Mills College Library, Hinistere des Affaires Etrangeres (Paris), Montgomery County (PA) Court House, Montgomery County (PA) Historical Society, Moravian Archives (Bethlehem, PA), Morristown National Historical Park Library, Myhlenberg College Library, National Archives of the United States, National Army Museum (London), New Hampshire Historical Society, New Haven Colony (CN) Historical Society, New Jersey Bureau of Archives and History, New Jersey Historical Society, New York Historical Society, New York Public Library, New York State Historical Association, New York State Library, North Carolina Departmetn of Archives, Northampton County (PA) Historical Society, Nottingham (England) University Library, Ohio Historical Society, Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, Pennsylvania Hospital Medical Library, Pennsylvania State Archives, Philadelphia City Archives, Philadelphia City Hall, Pierpont Morgan Library, Presbyterian Historical Society, Princeton University Library, Public Records Office (England), Reed Collections, Rhode Island Historical Society, Rosenbach Foundation (Philadelphia), Royal Artillery Institution (England), Royal Maritime Museum (England), Rutgers University Library, St. John's Seminary (Doheny Library), Schuylkill County (PA) Historical Society, Schwenkfelder Library (Pennsburg, PA), Sheffield (england) Public Library, Shippensburg (PA) Public Library, Shippensburg (PA) State College (Lehman Library), Staten Island Historical Society, South Carolina Archives, South Carolina Historical Society, Sussex County (DE) Court House, Sussex County (DE) Historical Society, Tioga Point Museum (Athens, PA), Union College Library, United States Military Academy at West Point Library, University of California at Berkeley Library, University of California at Los Angeles Research Library, University of Chicago Library, University of Georgia at Athens Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Library and Southern Historical Collection, University of Pennsylvania Libraries, University of Virginia Library, Valley Forge Historical Society, Vermont Public Records Commission, Villanova University Library, Virginia Historical Society, Virginia State Library and Archives, Vermont Historical Society, Washington and Jefferson College Library, Washington's Headquarters at Newburg (NY), Wayne State University Library, West Chester (PA) Sb.ate College, Western Reserve Historical Society, Wyoming (PA) Historical and Geologic Society, Yale University (Sterling Library and Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library)~
Mr •. John F. Reed graciously opened his private manuscript
collection to the project for research~ and has also provided
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important information on various occasions. The staff of the Steuben Papers Project under the direction of Dr. Edith von Zemenzsky very kindly advised the Valley Forge project staff in the early stages of the undertaking.
Aside from the archives visited by staff research historians, a further 446 were queried by mail. One hundred and seven replied, adding to the harvest of documents and data.
Stephen Kucheruk, cartographer, Mid-Atlantic Regional Office, was kind enough to produce maps 1 and 2 for the report.
Particular thanks are accorded to the project secretaries, Christine Leone and Carmel Pompilii, heirs to the multifarious typing and record-keeping tasks necessary to the completion of research and writing.
Jacqueline Thibaut Wayne K. Bodle Valley Forge May, 1980
iv

INTRODUCTION
One of the great advantages attained by the hastily recruited volunteer force known as the Continental Army, lay in its complement of men trained to perform tasks far beyond the ken of the European professional soldier; men who were forgemasters, chandlers and bakers, farmers, physicians and carpenters, et al. The result was an unprofessional army in sore need of uniform training, but one which nevertheless was capable of an extraordinary economy of function; a force which could, as well as any other army in the western world at the time, look after itself. This panoply of skills, (not, admittedly, without lacunae), and the willingness to employ those skills in effective disregard of the military caste strictures which prevailed in European armies, resulted in a virtuoso display of selfsufficiency during the Valley Forge winter. Brigadier-General Huntington of the Connecticut line said it best himself:
..•one Businiss crowds so close upon the Heels of another as to forbid Recreation. The Brigadiers are become Sope boilers, Oilmen, Armourers. Tanners - Shoemakers and the Lord knows that. 1
-1-

,..;2-
He was exaggerating only slightly. Colonel Ogden of the 1st New Jersey Regiment was sent home to New Jersey to produce bayonets and scabbards for the Army, and he was not alone among officers often called upon to resuscitate disused entrepreneurial skills. 2
The British Army, to be sure, had sappers, miners, farriers, pioneers, surgeons, and bakers, but these were adjunctive to the fighting force, and were extra baggage in the manpower pool. The British fighting man, officer and enlisted man alike had one principal task; to perform in battle. There was, nevertheless, an occasional drastic mismatch of man and task in the Continental Army, particularly when skilled axmen were most needed in camp. The hyperbolic General John Sullivan, responsible for constructing a bridge across the Schuylkill and beset with innumerable difficulties, finally burst out to Washington:
I might have mentioned That Some of the Brigades who are to furnish me with Carpenters Sent me kTeapytlotrhs ewirhogohoadd nCeavreprenutseerds aant haoxmeintothBeiurildLiHveust;s. 3 The superior versatility, however, of the American soldier was much in evidence. In the winter of 1777-1778, and in those which followed, it would enable him to hew out a makeshift environment in which the Army could survive as a concentrated force in the face of harrowing 9ifficulties. In the litter of succeeding decades it has become difficult to discern how the soldiers and officers at Valley Forge perceived their environment. This was the first time a
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